Evaluation for 3.e.2
Materials provide spiraling and scaffolded practice.
The materials provide spiraling and scaffolded practice by supporting distributed practice over the course of the year, including scaffolds for students to demonstrate integration of literacy skills that spiral over the school year.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The materials provide writing workshops, speaking/listening workshops, grammar workshops, and vocabulary workshops throughout the year to scaffold and spiral these skills. Activities and tasks that integrate these skills also exist throughout the year.
In Unit 2, within the “Writing Workshop,” students write an argumentative essay about a topic of their choice. The Writing Workshop breaks the writing process into chunks and provides support for students with tasks such as prewriting (a pro and con chart), drafting (a sample student essay with an explanation of the writer’s process), and revision (advice from a great writer).
In Unit 3, the materials include the “Grammar and Style: Verb Tense Workshop,” the “Vocabulary and Spelling: Literal and Figurative Language Workshops,” a “Speaking and Listening Workshop,” and a Writing Workshop.
In Unit 6, within the Writing Workshop, students write an “I-Search” research paper, an essay written on a topic of personal relevance. The Writing Workshop section breaks the writing process into chunks and provides support for students with tasks such as researching a topic using a Know-Want to Know-Learned (KWL) chart, and proper documentation (sample quotes and a Works Cited page).
The materials provide scaffolded forms of comprehension throughout, using Bloom’s Taxonomy questioning at the end of each literature selection, which involves students referring to the text and then reasoning with the text. With each increase in question number, the level of difficulty with reasoning increases, from understanding and application to evaluating and creating.
In Unit 1, when reading “Destiny” by Louise Erdrich, students respond to an understanding task: “How does Wallacette interact with the other children at school?” Then, students respond to an application task: “Indicate how Wallacette reacts when Celestine tries to comfort her.” Following these tasks, students engage in analysis, evaluation, and creation: “Recall what Celestine creates for the school potluck”; “Identify what started the fight between Adele and Celestine”; “State the reasons why Wallacette might have attacked the ‘Donkey of Destiny.’”
In Unit 3, when reading “Gifts” and “To the Oak” by Shu Ting, students answer an understanding question: “Recall what the pond lets the willows and ferns do in ‘Gifts.’” Students reason with the text: “In your own words, explain what sacrifice the speaker makes in dreaming as the pond.” Students then engage in application: “State why the speaker in ‘Gifts’ refuses to mourn when the leaves ‘wither and fade’” and “Relate the idea of sacrifice to the idea of a struggle for freedom.”
The material provides the gradual-release-of-responsibility model throughout each unit. Three levels of reading support gradually transfer responsibility from the teacher and the textbook to the student. The reading support throughout the unit progresses from guided to directed reading. The guided reading support includes extensive support before, during, and after reading in “Close Reading Models.” Directed reading includes extensive support before and after reading; the materials direct students to practice skills during reading.
In Unit 3, when students read “Gifts” and “To the Oak” by Shu Ting, teachers preview the selections through guided reading enrichment that focuses on building background through literary context and figurative language. The materials state: “The lyric poems express personal feelings. In ‘Gifts,’ Shu Ting expresses her faith in the human spirit by alluding to China’s troubled past. ‘To the Oak’ is written as a love poem, expressing the poet’s deep connection with nature.” Teachers also guide students on defining tone in literary works and recognizing this aspect of a poem while using a cluster chart to discover the meaning of words. In this guided reading section, teachers lead students in expressing struggle in a creative way, and students research information on the Misty Poets in order to connect more deeply with the poetry found in the directed reading section. For example, the materials state: “Students read the ‘Meet the Author’ section and free-write about one or more of the subjects that the Misty poets focused on: individualism, humans’ relationship with the natural world, and the struggle with oppression.” Students then share their ideas in small groups. In the directed reading section, students answer comprehensive questions and engage in activities at the end of the selection readings.
In Unit 4, with The Inspector-General by Anton Chekhov, the teacher’s edition includes a “Drama Close Reading Model.” This model walks students through the first-, second-, and third-reading process. The materials provide point-of-use close reading skills and analyzing-literature questions for use during reading to guide students through the reading process. The teacher explains to the students that they will continue to apply these strategies and skills as they read other dramas in the unit. Following this section, there is a “First Reading” section, which instructs the teacher to lead students through the “Build Background,” “Make Connections,” and “Meet the Author” sections to prepare for reading the selection. The teacher guides students through “Use Reading Skills” and “Preview Vocabulary.” Following this, in the next section, “Second Reading,” the teacher allows students to begin reading the play. The teacher points out the “Use Reading Skills” and “Analyze Literature” questions that appear in the margins. Materials state: “Cite the definitions and pronunciations of vocabulary words in the margins and note that footnotes at the bottoms of the pages define additional words.” The final section, “Third Reading,” instructs teachers to explain that the “Refer to Text” questions will help them recall details from the play; the “Reason with Text” questions will help them analyze the importance and meaning of the details; the “Analyze Literature” questions will help them explore a literary feature of the selection.