Evaluation for 4.4
Materials provide frequent opportunities for students to practice and develop fluency while reading a wide variety of grade-level texts at the appropriate rate with accuracy and prosody. (Grades 1-2 only)
The materials provide frequent opportunities for students to practice and develop fluency while reading a wide variety of grade-level texts at an appropriate rate, accurately, and with prosody. Materials include instruction in fluency, including rate, accuracy, and prosody. Fluent reading is modeled daily by the teacher, and specific short segments of lessons can emphasize fluency. Opportunities for students to build fluency are given through choral reading, echo reading, and partner reading. The materials provide opportunities and routines for teachers to regularly monitor and provide feedback to students on their fluency practice with rate, accuracy, and prosody.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The materials’ fluency routine has four steps as outlined by the “Instructional Routines Handbook”: 1, Explain what fluency means; 2, Model fluency with a read-aloud, selecting an aspect to emphasize; 3, Lead students through Guided Practice using echo reading, cloze reading, or choral reading; 4, Practice fluency with partners, with a teacher, individually, or using the “Practice Book.” The materials recommend additional strategies, such as audio recordings and focusing on early phonics and decoding skills. The materials recommend: “At early Grade 1, offer opportunities for students to practice the following skills with an emphasis on accuracy and building speed.”
The materials use “Oral Reading Fluency” to screen and progress monitor students’ growth in and mastery of fluency skills. The materials provide a “Fluency Assessment” component that can be used every unit to monitor progress; however, the materials recommend not formally assessing oral fluency at the start of Grade 1 since, until students can “decode and automatically recognize many words by sight, they cannot be expected to read aloud effortlessly and expressively.” The materials do provide assessments in fluency-building activities such as letter naming, phoneme segmentation, and sight word fluency. The materials contain twenty-four fluency passages that teachers can use to assess whether students can decode phonologically and automatically recognize words by sight, starting with Unit 3. Additionally, throughout the “Teacher’s Edition,” there are sidebars titled “Check for Success,” which remind teachers to take anecdotal notes of student performance; they refer teachers to use a rubric to record children’s progress and note whether the student can or cannot perform the targeted skill, such as identify high-frequency words or decode words with specific diphthongs or other spelling patterns. The progress-monitoring page at the end of each week includes a fluency assessment. The chart says: “Conduct group fluency assessments using the Letter Naming, Phoneme Segmentation, and Sight Word Fluency assessments.”
In Unit 2, during small-group instruction, the materials instruct the teacher to directly teach fluency, setting the purpose for reading as reading with accuracy and appropriate rate. The teacher reads the first page of the leveled reader Pick Up Day, modeling appropriate intonation and stressing important words. The teacher reads the next page, with students repeating after each sentence. The teacher emphasizes appropriate intonation and provides corrective feedback as needed. The rest of the story is read independently or with a partner. In the same unit, during a lesson on high-frequency words, students practice reading sentences that contain high-frequency words at the appropriate pace and with automaticity. The materials direct the teacher to conduct oral reading fluency assessments to progress monitor at the end of Weeks 1–5.
Unit 3 focuses on fluency in the phonics, spelling, or small-group lessons. A sidebar above one of the phonemic awareness lessons reminds teachers to do a sound-spelling review with students by displaying word-building cards with different spelling patterns and having children say the sounds. In another lesson, after the high-frequency word review, there is a section that says, to build word automaticity, the teacher can post sentences with the high-frequency words for the week and have students repeatedly read the sentences aloud together at the same pace. The small-group lesson for the “Approaching Level” readers and “On Level” readers has a note to practice accuracy and rate. This begins with the teacher modeling how to read one page from the decodable reader with accuracy and an appropriate rate. Children first read along with the teacher, then practice rereading the text with a partner. In another section of the small- group lesson, after reviewing the foundational skills from the whole-class lessons (high- frequency words and phonics), there is a note to focus on fluency by reminding children to focus on their accuracy and rate as they read from the two decodable texts. There is an additional lesson that focuses on building fluency with phonics and lists over two dozen spelling sounds the class has learned, so that the teacher can display the word-building cards for each sound and have children chorally read these sounds several times while varying the pace of each reading. Another section focuses on building fluency and connected text; the materials prompt the teacher to have children review the decodable readers and look for words with the targeted phonics sounds. In partners, students reread the sections with the targeted sounds for fluency. The small-group lesson for the “Beyond Level” readers has a sidebar that notes students can access online tools for fluency practice to listen to a grammar song.
In Unit 4, using the text “Snail and Frog Race,” the teacher explains to students that reading with accuracy means pronouncing words correctly and reading every word in the text. The teacher explains that reading with accuracy helps with comprehension. The teacher models by reading a page in the text, carefully pronouncing the words and pointing out to not skip over any words in the text. The teacher mentions to students that if they make an error, they should go back to the beginning of the sentence and start over. The teacher then guides students to practice alongside the teacher on the next page of the text, and then on the remaining pages with a partner. Using the text “Go Wild,” the teacher explains to students that good readers read so it sounds like speech. The teacher also explains that reading at the appropriate rate can help them better understand what they are reading. The teacher models by reading a page in the text at an appropriate rate and pointing out how the text was read so it sounds like speech. The teacher explains that if students read too fast or too slow, it will be difficult to understand what they are reading. The teacher then guides students to practice alongside the teacher on the next page of the text, and then on the remaining pages with a partner. Using the shared- reading text “A Team of Fish,” the teacher models for students how to pause slightly after seeing a comma in the text and a little longer after each period in the text. The teacher explains that a comma separates ideas in a sentence, so readers pause to show the separation. The teacher also explains that a sentence is a whole idea, so readers pause between sentences to separate each idea. The teacher models reading a sentence with a comma to show how the pause tells listeners that there is a comma in the sentence. Students then have the opportunity to reread the sentence chorally and practice fluency using online differentiated genre passages. As students read the text “Little Rabbit,” they take turns reading aloud to a partner, focusing on reading accurately and correcting any errors. During this time, the teacher circulates the room, listening to student fluency as they read and providing corrective feedback as needed.