Evaluation for 5.3
Materials include supports for English Learners (EL) to meet grade-level learning expectations.
The materials include supports for English Learners (ELs) to meet grade-level learning expectations. Accommodations for linguistics commensurate with various levels of English language proficiency as defined by the ELPS are included. Materials provide various scaffolds, such as Spanish translations of essential components of each unit and cognates for unit vocabulary. Students are encouraged to use their first language as a means to linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. Vocabulary is developed in the context of connected discourse.
Examples include but are not limited to:
A “Text X-Ray: ELPS Support” section precedes each text selection. According to the description provided, the Text X-Ray “provides support for the four domains of English language development addressed in the English Language Proficiency Standards.” The materials provide pre-reading strategies, cultural resources, and instructional strategies designed to target the different domains of the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) (listening, speaking, writing, and reading) through domain-specific content boxes targeted toward a specific ELPS proficiency level.
The “Reading Studio” includes Spanish translations for essential questions, reading response logs, academic vocabulary, and summaries for each selection.
In Unit 1, for the text “The Vietnam War” by Alberto Rios, the “Text X-Ray: ELPS Support” for “Listening” suggests ELs at the “Beginning” level read sections of the poem aloud with a partner to understand the central idea. To guide discussion, the materials provide sentence frames such as “The author is showing us…. This represents….” The materials suggest “Advanced” ELs summarize their thoughts on the poem’s central idea and then explain to a partner what language in the poem led them to their conclusion. To guide discussion, the materials provide sentence frames such as “When the author says…, it makes me feel…. This part reminded me of….” In the EL support box for Anna Quindlen’s “A Quilt of Country,” the materials suggest displaying academic vocabulary words related to argument and their cognates, such as argument/argumento, position/posicion, opposing/opuesto. Students can then use the terms to complete sentence frames, including “An…presents a claim;…support a claim;…supports reasons.” It is also noted that students “whose primary language is Spanish, Vietnamese, Hmong, Cantonese, Haitian Creole, or Korean” may experience difficulty with the short i sound. It is suggested that the teacher pronounce the critical vocabulary words from the selection that contain the short i sound and have students repeat them.
In Unit 2, the “Text X-Ray” suggests pre-teaching vocabulary and cultural terms and building background for the short story “The Censors” by Luisa Valenzuela. The “Text X-Ray” offers activities and instructional support in listening, speaking, reading, and writing for students at four levels of proficiency: “Beginning,” “Intermediate,” “Advanced,” and “Advanced High.” For reading “The Censors,” the support suggests a two-column chart with sentence frames in the left column. Beginning ELs write a word or phrase that makes sense in the right column after reading specific paragraphs. Intermediate ELs use the same chart, but the students write the word because and complete the sentence after reading specific paragraphs. Advanced ELs are asked to describe the main character and how he is changing, citing text evidence to support their answers. Advanced High ELs are asked to retell the story in a paragraph that would be accessible to Beginning ELs. For the “Interview with John Lewis,” the support box for “Listening” provides strategies for Beginning, Intermediate, High, and Advanced High English Learners. A strategy for an EL student at the Intermediate level for listening is to be given a purpose for listening, and then to listen to the podcast. Teachers are to have students “make a note whenever they hear one of the different elements used in the podcast”; the elements focused on are sound elements and voice narration. In the “Teacher Wrap” for Martin Luther King, Jr.’s “I Have a Dream,” for EL support, teachers are advised to point out that three of the “Critical Vocabulary” words for the selection have Spanish cognates: inextricably/inextricablemente, desolate/desolado, degenerate/degenerar.
In Unit 3, for “The Grasshopper and the Bell Cricket” by Yasunari Kawabata, the “Text X-Ray: ELPS Support” for “Speaking” suggests having Beginning ELs use cultural vocabulary by repeating responses to questions. The teacher asks, “What is something that can be worn?” The teacher then points to a picture of a kimono and says, “kimono”; students repeat the response. Advanced High ELs discuss with a partner what they consider to be the most interesting element of Japanese culture presented in the story. They are given choices: lanterns, insect cages, and bell cages. In the EL support box in the “Teacher Wrap” for Frans de Waal’s “Monkey See, Monkey Do, Monkey Connect,” teachers review some common suffixes (-al, -ive, -ous, -tion/-ation) and their meanings. Students then work with a partner to define the words ineffective, emotional, imagination, and various, discussing how the suffix helps them understand the meanings of the words.
In Unit 4, while reading “The Price of Freedom” by Noreen Riols, one of the EL support sections suggests helping EL students analyze figurative language: “Explain that the phrase ‘leaping like a demented kangaroo’ in paragraph 4 is a simile, or a way of comparing two things by using the word like and creating a mental image. Ensure that English Learners know what a kangaroo is by showing them a picture. Explain that demented means ‘not thinking straight’ or ‘crazy.’ Then ask students to complete this sentence: In this sentence in the essay, ‘leaping like a demented kangaroo’ means….” After students complete the sentence using the sentence frame, small groups work together to create a sentence that they feel captures the meaning of the simile. This support is specifically suggested for Intermediate ELs. In the “Teacher Wrap” for William Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, for English Learner support, teachers are advised to point out that the verb exile has the Spanish cognate exiliar. Students also develop academic vocabulary by discussing Shakespeare’s use of oxymorons in the play using the sentence frame “…is an oxymoron because…means…and…means…. These meanings are….”
In Unit 5, in the English Learner support box in the “Teacher Wrap” for Wislawa Szymborska’s poem “The End and the Beginning,” teachers are advised that the term photogenic and the “colloquial sentence structure in lines 18–19” may be confusing to students. For Beginning and Intermediate ELs, it is suggested to have students use the cognate fotogenico and the context clue cameras to understand the meaning of the word photogenic.
In Unit 6, before reading The Cruelest Journey: 600 Miles to Timbuktu by Kira Salak, students preview critical vocabulary. The EL support states for the teacher to tell students that three of the vocabulary words have Spanish cognates: circuit/circuito, integrity/integridad, embark/embarcar. Students also read Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of Macbeth. One of the EL supports is to read and paraphrase. Teachers read aloud the dialogue from lines 31–61 and paraphrase. Then, students work with a partner to retell what happened in simple terms. Teachers monitor conversations for understanding and then have students draw a cartoon of the dialogue with simple speech balloons or captions. This support is recommended for Intermediate/Advanced ELs. In the EL support box, in the “Teacher Wrap” for Homer’s The Odyssey, students rephrase unfamiliar vocabulary for better comprehension. Teachers provide students with a list of substitutions for difficult words and phrases in the selection, such as “have no muster=don’t get together”; “no consultation=don’t share information.” Students work in pairs to reread a section of the text using the given substitutions, then discuss the meanings of these words and phrases.