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ELARGrade 2 | 2020
Publisher: McGraw Hill School DivisionSeries includes:
The quality review is the result of extensive evidence gathering and analysis by Texas educators of how well instructional materials satisfy the criteria for quality in the subject-specific rubric. Follow the links below to view the scores and read the evidence used to determine quality.
Section 1. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Alignment
TEKS Student %
TEKS Teacher %
ELPS Student %
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Section 2. Texts (what students read, see, and hear)
Section 3. Literacy Practices and Text Interactions: Reading, Writing, Speaking, Listening, Thinking, Inquiry, and Research
Section 4. Developing and Sustaining Foundational Literacy Skills
Section 5. Supports for Diverse Learners
Section 6. Ease of Use and Supports for Implementation
Section 7. Technology, Cost, and Professional Learning Support
|Grade||TEKS Student %||TEKS Teacher %||ELPS Student %||ELPS Teacher %|
The materials include high-quality texts that cover a range of student interests. The titles listed in the interactive read-alouds, big books, shared reads, and anchor texts include both previously published texts and texts published for this program; the texts are well-crafted and represent the content, language, and writing produced by experts in a variety of disciplines. The materials include texts with engaging content and increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Biblioburro: A True Story from Columbia is an informational text by celebrated author Jeanette Winter, which uses vivid illustrations and captivating language to tell the story of how a man, his burros, and his books bring joy to children in remote Columbian villages.
A biography titled Diego Rivera: His World and Ours by Duncan Tonatiuh explores the life of the famous artist Diego Rivera.
Grace for President by Kelly DiPucchio is a shared read-aloud. When Grace’s teacher reveals that the United States has never had a female president, Grace decides to be the first and starts off her political career in her school’s mock election. It is a fun introduction to the American electoral system, but also teaches the value of hard work, courage, and independent thought.
The interactive read-aloud Towns Need Rules! is provided for students to analyze a persuasive article. The article explains why it is important to have rules in a community and why it is important to follow them.
The materials include a variety of poems, such as “A Box of Crayons,” “What Story Is This?” and “The Ticket.” In these poems, children will find an interest in the metaphors, rhymes, rhythms, and descriptions. They may also be convinced to try writing poetry of their own. The Contest of Athena and Poseidon by Pamela Walker is a mythic tale that explains the origin of the olive tree and is structured as a play, with setting, characters, scenes, dialogue, and stage directions.
Wolf! Wolf! by John Rocco is a fable with a clear problem and solution and follows a beginning- middle-and-end structure; it is an alternate retelling of the famous fable The Boy Who Cried Wolf, so students will be able to identify the plot of the story.
The materials include a variety of text types and genres across content areas such as math, science, and social studies, and meet the requirements of the second-grade TEKS. Texts provide sufficient opportunities for students to analyze text and graphic features.
Examples of literary texts include but are not limited to:
The Contest of Athena and Poseidon by Pamela Walker (drama/myth)
“Lighting Lives,” McGraw-Hill Education (narrative nonfiction)
Mr. Putter and Tabby See the Stars by Cynthia Rylant (narrative fiction)
Examples of informational texts include but are not limited to:
“Many Ways to Enjoy Music,” a Time for Kids text (scientific nonfiction)
Baby Bears by Bobbie Kalman (zoology informational text)
“Cesar Chavez,” McGraw-Hill Education (biography)
Money Madness by David A. Adler (social studies informational text)
“The Problem with Plastic Bags,” a Time for Kids text (persuasive)
Examples of print and graphic features include but are not limited to:
In Eagles and Eaglets, students use text evidence gathered from diagrams and labels to learn about the relationship between the two. Using a diagram of a bald eagle, students must use the labels to learn about the eagle’s body parts.
In the “Literature Anthology” text “From Caterpillar to Butterfly,” students discuss how a photograph connects to the article’s main topic: “What does [the photo on the page] show? How does the photo support the main topic?” Later, students analyze how the author organizes information on the life cycle of a butterfly into a diagram. Students must connect the circular structure of the diagram to the cyclical nature of life.
In the shared read “Cesar Chavez,” students examine a timeline of Cesar Chavez’s life. They must use the timeline to better understand Chavez’s life and accomplishments. After underlining an event from his life, they’re asked the question: “How does the timeline help you understand Cesar’s work and accomplishments?”
The materials include texts that are appropriately challenging and are at an appropriate level of complexity to support students at the Grade 2 level. The text complexity analysis also provides reader and task information for educators to consider when reading books to students. Interactive read-aloud texts, mentor texts, and shared-reading texts are above the complexity level of what second-grade students can read independently, and texts are appropriately challenging for students.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The publisher provides a text complexity analysis for the majority of interactive read-alouds and anchor texts; the majority of the texts are at, or above, the Grade 2 reading level. This analysis includes quantitative Lexile levels and a grade-level reading index; qualitative features include meaning/purpose, structure, language, and knowledge demands. Even though some titles have a grade equivalent of Grade 2, the range of reading abilities throughout Grade 2 still makes their overall complexity level appropriate even in the last quarter of the school year.
In Unit 2, a text complexity analysis of the shared reading includes Eagles and Eaglets with a 520 Lexile, within Grade 2 range. This text includes qualitative features that are appropriate for students in second grade. The text contains concrete ideas and does not demand much background knowledge in order for students to be successful with it. The text also provides photographs with captions and diagrams with labels in order to assist students in learning facts about how eaglets become eagles.
In Unit 4, a text complexity analysis for Wild Animal Families by McGraw-Hill showcases an expository text with a 700 Lexile and ATOS 2.75–5.14, analyzed by the publishers. Qualitative features analysis includes the following notes: “The text uses animals to explain how baby animals are like their parents. The structure of the book is divided into four sections, each one a different animal giving details about how the babies are like their parents. There is complex vocabulary that will have to be clarified (huddle, wrapping, squirt, etc.). Reader Considerations: Discuss, explaining the different types of maps and places. Task Considerations: Use this book to teach characteristics of realistic fiction, using real maps and creating a map.”
Some of the read-aloud texts in the materials are:
● In Unit 2, Genre Study 1, Eagles and Eaglets, a shared-reading text, is 520 Lexile, average Grade 2 equivalent.
● In Unit 3, Color Your Community, a narrative nonfiction text, is 680 Lexile, Grade 3 equivalent.
● In Unit 4, My New School, McGraw-Hill, an informational text, is 620 Lexile, Grade 3 equivalent.
● In Unit 5, Brave Bessie by Eric Velasquez, is 650 Lexile, Grade 2 equivalent.
The materials contain questions and tasks that support students in synthesizing knowledge and ideas to deepen understanding and identify and explain themes. Questions and tasks build conceptual knowledge, are text-dependent, and prompt students to synthesize new information; formal and informal assignments focus on the texts students are reading/listening to and require close attention to meaning and inferences for comprehension. The questions and activities grow students’ understanding of topics and build literacy skills over the course of each unit while allowing students to discuss and evaluate information from multiple places within a text. Tasks give students opportunities to build conceptual knowledge and literacy skills over the course of the year, and the units follow a logical progression of skills and build upon each other. Questions and activities grow students’ understanding of both topics and literacy skills over the course of each unit.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, read-alouds include specific questions about the text that require students to give close attention to meaning and inferences; students interact with a text directly to validate thinking. Materials provide students with scaffolding for drawing conclusions and making inferences to combine their background knowledge with text evidence. Materials group similar texts about topics that connect to the unit’s “Essential Question” and engage across modalities. Each week, texts focus on an Essential Question that is often connected to one purpose for the read-aloud. Many questions in the “Teacher Edition” are text-dependent and ask students to analyze and make meaning with the information they hear and read from texts. Students have daily opportunities to answer text-dependent questions about texts and cite where in the text they found their answer; second-grade students underline evidence in their texts. Assignments and activities ask students to take the information they have learned and apply it to partner and class discussions and writing.
In Unit 2, through the paired selection From Caterpillar to Butterfly, students first look at a photograph of a caterpillar and a butterfly to answer the question “How does the photo support the main topic?” To further their understanding of butterflies, students use a butterfly life cycle diagram to answer the question “What happens first in the life cycle of a butterfly?” Using text evidence from this diagram, they then justify how they know. To conclude the lesson, students look back at the butterfly life cycle and take notes summarizing the different steps of development. In the end, students understand the topic of butterflies well enough to compare and contrast butterflies to other baby animals like eaglets and bear cubs.
In Unit 3, the class discusses, “What have you learned from the selections and the painting (Breton Girls Dancing, Pont-Aven by Paul Gauguin) about the different ways friends depend on each other?” Students discuss different ways the girls may depend on each other, circle clues from the painting or caption demonstrating what the girls are doing together, and use the following sentence starters: “(1) The girls are…. (2) The girls look…. (3) They help each other….” Based on the selections they’ve read and the painting, students write about how friends depend on each other.
In Unit 6, students use the text Money Madness to infer why the author asks to “imagine a world without money.” The class returns to the text to read that, without money, people would have to grow their own food, raise animals, and even learn to knit. This text information and close reading enables students to apply their background knowledge to infer that life would be difficult without money. Students also use the expository text The Life of a Dollar Bill to evaluate information from multiple places within the text. Students are encouraged to always think about the Essential Question “How do we use money?” as they take notes.
The materials contain questions and tasks that require students to evaluate the language, key ideas, details, craft, and structure of individual texts. Students learn, practice, and apply skills that help readers understand and comprehend text. The materials offer opportunities for young learners to use critical inquiry to analyze the authors’ choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, students interact with many texts on the same topic, which is tied to the unit’s “Big Idea” and a weekly “Essential Question.” Discussions allow opportunities for students to ask and answer questions, identify the author’s purpose, make inferences, draw conclusions, and make comparisons while interacting with a single text or across multiple texts; to ensure comprehension, teachers address pictures, words, and phrases authors use. Materials contain opportunities for students to discuss and analyze the author’s use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes. Students examine the author’s purpose for writing text and how the use of text structure contributes to the author’s purpose. While there is no direct instruction focused on comparing and contrasting authors’ purposes across text, there is enough interaction in practice to support this skill. Texts are thematically linked to Essential Questions, and students engage in sufficient written and verbal analysis comparing texts related to the Essential Questions.
In Unit 1, in each of the close readings, throughout the text, the materials provide teachers with a variety of question types that address different skills. For example, in the shared read Little Flap Learns to Fly, the teacher models how to evaluate key details in the text, using a think- aloud to note, notice, and ask questions. To make inferences, the teacher reminds children that, when they read fantasy, they should make sure they understand what parts of the story could and could not happen in real life. To understand the author’s craft, the teacher guides students in an analysis of word choice to aid visualization.
In Unit 3, students discuss the author’s purpose in narrative nonfiction—to answer questions, explain how something works, or describe something or someone. Students find the author’s purpose for writing a selection by asking themselves, “What does the author want me to know?”
In Unit 4, students read the anchor text Volcanoes and use the “Cause and Effect” graphic organizer to record causes and effects they find in the text. Specific pages are reread. One page is reread for students to explain why the author uses a quotation to help the reader understand volcanic eruptions (to help the reader understand what the volcano looks, sounds, and feels like when near it). Another is reread for students to explain why the author uses descriptive language about volcanic eruptions.
In Unit 6, students compare the following texts: The Life of a Dollar Bill; Keep the Change; Money Madness; and King Midas and the Golden Touch. Students discuss how the stories are alike, how they are different, and how they help to answer the Essential Question. Students focus on how the authors help the reader understand why people use money and how it affects people. Using the text The Life of a Dollar Bill, students analyze and discuss why the author structured the selection the way they did. Students note that the author organizes information in time order, or sequence, to show a dollar’s life.
The materials include a year-long plan for students to interact with and build key vocabulary in and across texts. Most lessons across the curriculum have a vocabulary component, and there is explicit vocabulary instruction that occurs at the beginning of each week or read-aloud. Vocabulary development opportunities are frequent and purposeful; guidance for the teacher is both convenient and thorough. There are daily activities in the instructional schedule and small-group plans that differentiate vocabulary development for all students, including “Approaching Level,” “On Level,” “Beyond Level,” and English Learner (EL) levels (“Beginning,” “Intermediate,” and “Advanced”).
Examples include but are not limited to:
Materials provide general academic vocabulary exposure, oral vocabulary development activities, domain-specific vocabulary exposure, and vocabulary strategies throughout the materials. Each lesson has a list of general academic vocabulary that will be used, such as narrative nonfiction, narrator, and text features. These terms are used by the teacher in the lesson and are usually directly defined before being applied.
A consistent routine is included as a year-long plan for building oral vocabulary. While these terms are not always academic, they are age-appropriate for Grade 2 students and usually relate to the anchor text for the week. Teachers can use the “Visual Vocabulary Cards” as a support to define, give an example, and ask a question related to the vocabulary term.
In Unit 2, the teacher is instructed to use the “Define/Example/Ask” routine in order to teach five vocabulary words to students before the first reading of the shared expository text. After this instruction, students are encouraged to use the vocabulary words as they discuss animal offspring and their parents.
In the Unit 3 anchor text Mr. Putter and Tabby See the Stars, a sidebar vocabulary support is given for a phrase from the text—“they slept like logs.” Teachers are to explain to students that “a log is a part of a tree trunk that has been cut off the tree.” The teacher also says: “Imagine a log lying on the ground, not moving. If you sleep like a log, it means you sleep very deeply, nothing can wake you up, you don’t move.” Teachers ask students why the characters slept like logs.
In Unit 4, vocabulary support is embedded in the plans through Visual Vocabulary Cards, sidebars with academic language, and vocabulary building. Support for Approaching Level students includes instructional activities to review vocabulary words and a cumulative vocabulary word review, “Identify Related Words and Similes”; the On Level plans include “Review Vocabulary Words and Similes”; the Beyond Level plans include “Review Domain Specific Words and Similes.” For ELs, there are different plans supporting Beginning, Intermediate, and Advanced levels.
In Unit 5, the materials for Cesar Chavez include scripts for the teacher to explain the use of synonyms and context clues to understand new vocabulary. The Visual Vocabulary Cards are used in each lesson to reintroduce each of the eight words. The small-group lessons included in the “Teacher Edition” offer differentiated lessons for students depending on their reading levels: Approaching, On Level, Beyond, and EL.
During the first reading of the shared-reading texts in Unit 6, students are encouraged to take notes of words that they would like to learn. Students are given the chance to look for the meaning of the words using context clues within sentences. This activity provides students a generic, in-context opportunity to further their understanding of academic vocabulary.
The materials include opportunities for students to engage in self-sustained reading. While Kindergarten students do not engage in a self-selected independent reading routine until Unit 3, materials provide increasing goals for stamina. The materials provide guidance for teachers in implementing a self-sustained reading routine and supports to hold students accountable during independent reading.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The “Teacher Edition” mentions independent reading during small-group time, and the “Instructional Routines Handbook” includes guidance for teachers on procedures for self- sustained reading as well as guidance for implementation and accountability routines. The Instructional Routines Handbook provides recommendations to teachers on how to set up a classroom library, conduct teacher book talks, set up individual book boxes, and other independent reading routines teachers can select to implement in their classrooms. During whole-group and small-group reading, the teacher sets the routine for student learning, including setting a purpose for reading, thinking about what will happen to characters, asking and answering questions, and drawing or writing about the book they read. Materials include reading logs and other routines for students to remain accountable to their reading; they guide teachers in conducting teacher-student conferences, literature circles, and other ways to demonstrate their thinking about independent reading books.
In the Unit 1 Teacher’s Edition, the teacher is presented with the following guidance as to how long students should read independently: “Children choose books for 30–40 minutes of daily independent reading and respond in their writer’s notebooks.” By Unit 5, 30–40 minutes per day continues to be the expectation.
In each unit, small-group plans include an option for self-selected reading to build comprehension. Students are reminded to set a purpose for reading, look for a specific skill (author’s purpose, setting, etc.) to help understand the story, and to ask and answer questions before, during, and after reading. After reading, the student records in his “Reader’s Notebook.” Specific guidance for teachers on implementation procedures and protocols to guide students on how to do this were not found.
Throughout the materials, students compose across text types for a variety of purposes and audiences. Students in Grade 2 are provided the opportunity to dictate or write poetry (using the elements of poetry), personal narratives that convey their thoughts and feelings about an experience, procedural text, reports, thank-you notes, and letters. Writing tasks are embedded within the literacy block, where a variety of writing types and purposes are used. Students not only write within genres that are specifically required but are also exposed to other genres of text, such as realistic fiction and biographies.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The writing opportunities are guided, include drawing and writing, require text evidence to support student responses, and allow opportunities for students to build writing skills. Instruction is varied, so students can grow as writers; students usually partner share, then draw and/or write. Materials provide teachers with support in growing students’ composition skills. Throughout all units, students have opportunities to analytically write about the texts they read as a class. In partners, students begin by analyzing a prompt in the “Reading/Writing Companion.” They then use their notes from the shared read as well as their graphic organizers to respond to the prompt, rereading the text as needed to find more evidence.
In Unit 2, students write a procedural text designed to help people take care of their pets. The following steps and tips are to be included: “[W]hat the pet should eat and drink, examples of toys that the pet would like, information about grooming (baths, brushing teeth, clipping nails), and information about when a pet should go to the veterinarian.” Later in the unit, students receive explicit instruction in writing poetry. The process is outlined in the “Teacher Edition” and begins by studying the expert model, the shared-read text, and a student model, which is a sample in the Reading/Writing Companion consumable student textbook. As part of the planning stage, students write their topic in the Reading/Writing Companion, draw a picture, and write facts. Before students write their drafts, the teacher helps them review poetry elements of the expert model, which students then mimic in their own writing. Once a strong foundation is built, students write drafts of poetry.
In Unit 3, students review how authors may write personal narratives to share special experiences; then, students brainstorm about a time they helped others. As students brainstorm ideas, they are encouraged to think about why they helped others and how it made them feel. Students compose a personal narrative about doing something good for the school, community, the environment, or helping friends or family. They use their ideas from their Reading/Writing Companion and can complete sentences starters if needed to help begin writing.
In Unit 4, after reading Happy New Year and Dear Primo: A Letter to my Cousin, students are guided to review the features of realistic fiction in the Reading/Writing Companion and the “Realistic Fiction Anchor Chart.” Students are guided to analyze the text, brainstorm ideas, choose a topic, plan/develop ideas, and write a draft. The students compare and contrast the homes of two cousins who have never met. Later in the unit, students write a thank-you letter to a friend or family member who did something nice or special. A heading with the student’s address and the date are to be included, as well as a greeting and salutation.
In Unit 6, the writing focus is poetry. Students go through the elements of the writing process by focusing on strong words, including rhyme and rhythm, revising for sentence fluency, engaging in partner feedback, editing with the editing checklist, and publishing.
Students have sufficient opportunities to engage in the writing process, developing text and organizing written ideas and details. The materials facilitate student use of the writing process, including planning, organizing, revising, editing, and publishing their drafts. Students write on a daily basis, either formally or informally. Often, students use the writing process to respond to a prompt based on the interactive read-aloud or shared reading; at least once each unit, students take a piece of writing through the entire writing process, including publication. Writing is built into the daily lessons, with the teacher modeling planning, drafting, revising, editing, and sharing/publishing; then, students are able to connect the process to their own writing.
Examples include but are not limited to:
In Unit 1, before students write their realistic fiction story, the teacher reminds them about the author’s purpose and audience, saying that “authors often write realistic fiction to entertain and teach readers about people and events.” She then connects this idea to the class read- aloud story, during which students discussed ways that children can work through problems with family members. Then, students plan their story: “Draw and brainstorm words that describe the characters, setting, and events you might write about.” The students focus on a character in a family and show how the character’s feelings change. Before students write their drafts, the teacher does a mini-lesson on the use of paragraphs; then, there is a mini-lesson on revising to add strong openings, and another mini-lesson on how to do a peer-revision conference.
In Unit 3, students write an expository essay about music or a musical instrument. Students brainstorm by drawing pictures of musical instruments. Before they begin drafting, students must be able to name, in writing, their chosen topic and articulate why the topic interests them. Students research their instrument and then begin to outline paragraphs for the essay. Students write a sentence that tells what each paragraph will be about, then list details from their notes to plan their writing. Students revise their essays for a strong opening, peer edit, publish, and share.
In Unit 4, the teacher explains how writers develop their drafts into focused pieces of writing by developing an idea with specific details. Students review the chart from the “Reading/Writing Companion” and share the details they circled. The teacher guides students to discuss how these ideas help the reader to picture what it’s like to be in these settings. Students brainstorm other sensory details the writer could use. As the students begin to write their draft, they choose one of the brainstormed ideas to expand for their writing piece. Students develop their ideas for their realistic fiction text with specific details, and they use a rubric from the Reading/Writing Companion to understand what is expected for each phase of the writing process.
The materials include opportunities for students to apply grade-level standard English conventions to their writing. They practice and apply conventions of academic language, punctuation, and grammar when speaking and writing. There are opportunities for practicing and applying punctuation and grammar in speaking and writing throughout the units and across the year, both in and out of context.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout the program, instruction begins with explicit information in order to build background knowledge for students; students have opportunities to apply their new skills within authentic reading, speaking, and writing experiences. Grammar, punctuation, and usage are taught systematically, both in and out of context, building upon prior learning. A year-long, systematic plan for teaching conventions, with teacher support, is included; students practice newly-acquired skills in conversation and isolated practice; they apply learning, via their own writing, in context.
In Unit 3, a text-deconstruction activity helps students identify why a writer uses specific grammar to convey meaning. Students then rephrase the sentence in their own words.
In Unit 4, students identify and correct errors in a letter. Students find a piece of writing in their “Writer’s Notebook” to correct spelling and usage errors of irregular verbs. Capitalization and punctuation errors are corrected in letters they have written. Practice book pages and an online activity are available for extra practice.
In Unit 6, the grammar focus is adjectives that compare. In order to practice that skill in a way that utilizes oral and written language, pairs of students write a short dialogue between the two vendors in The Starry Asters. In their dialogue, students use adjectives that compare; they edit each other’s work to ensure they wrote complete sentences. Students continue to focus on the drama/myth genre while practicing their writing skills, using dialogue, quotation marks, complete sentences, subject and predicate agreement, appropriate punctuation, and adjectives that compare.
The materials include instruction and practice for students to write legibly in cursive as well as a plan for procedures and supports for teachers to assess students’ handwriting development. Materials also include a year-long plan for handwriting instruction that contains teacher guidance.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout the year, the materials contain tips, models, videos, and directions for forming letters in cursive using appropriate strokes when letters are connected; they also contain opportunities for students to use their newly acquired skills throughout the daily instructional routine. The materials provide explicit instruction in cursive handwriting; first, the teacher models correct formation, and then students practice in a variety of ways, with embedded lessons within authentic writing experiences. As students become more fluent writers using cursive, instruction shifts from teaching single letters and stroke types to applying cursive in a variety of writing experiences. Teachers can assess students’ handwriting development as students use the response boards. Teachers “observe children’s pencil grip and paper position…correct as necessary,” and provide corrective feedback as needed.
In Unit 2, students are explicitly taught cursive letters that contain strokes that curve upwards. Examples of these letters include e, l, i, and t. Students begin by practicing the curve upwards, then attach that stroke to their letters. Students are then instructed on how to form each of the four letters and receive additional support on letter formation from the teacher, with the opportunity to practice their strokes independently in their practice book.
In Unit 6, students use cursive letters to write friendly letters, and the materials provide for explicit instruction in where uppercase letters are used in a letter. As students practice using cursive to write a friendly letter, they focus on pen grip, paper placement, posture, punctuation, capital letters, and letter formation.
The materials support students’ listening to and speaking about texts, providing day-to-day opportunities for students to actively engage in discussions about the texts they are reading; students listen, share, and ask questions about what they are reading and writing.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, materials require students to listen actively, ask questions to assist their comprehension, and discuss their learning. Teachers provide explicit instruction in effective speaking and listening, and students are given the chance to practice daily. Students have conversations to answer the “Essential Question” at the beginning of the units; they respond to questions about the text, analyze the author’s craft, use sentence stems, and ask each other questions. Materials provide support for students to listen and speak when reading texts in a small-group setting. Students listen to a variety of texts in “Big Books,” “Interactive Read-Aloud Cards,” the “Shared Read,” and student anthology. Materials provide opportunities for students to engage in discussions that require them to share information and ideas about the topics they are discussing. The class discussions are centered around the whole-class book selection; students are encouraged to ask their own questions and respond to questions from the teacher. Teacher questions are balanced between text-dependent and skill-based, as students learn genre structures, grammar skills, and literary elements. Routines during this time help facilitate discussion, depth of conversation, and connections across various skills learned. The shared read always opens with a reference to the Essential Question and an anchor chart about the genre being studied. The routine of discussing features of the genre before and after reading is typical, and students have multiple opportunities to collaborate with others while reading, which allows them to ask questions to understand information.
In Unit 2, before reading, students generate questions about The Boy Who Cried Wolf to help them understand the story. As students read, they use the left column of the page to identify key details from the text that answer their questions. Students discuss the text with a partner while reading; they discuss the steps the wolf takes to solve his hunger problem and what happens when the wolf sits down to come up with a plan. After reading the text, students retell the story in their own words, emphasizing the problem and solution in the text. Students discuss the Essential Question—“What can animals in stories teach us?”—using evidence from the text to support their answers.
In Unit 5, a social-emotional-learning sidebar asks teachers to remind students that heroes serve their communities by helping or inspiring people. As students read about heroes, the teacher encourages them to ask questions such as “How did this person help others? What can I do to help others in my classroom? In my school? In my community?”
In Unit 4, students share and discuss their responses to How Mountains Form. Students discuss how the photo, the caption, and the texts demonstrate change on Earth. At the end of the unit, students orally present an independent writing activity. For the audience, this project includes a listening checklist: noting how the speaker shows different characters’ feelings, taking notes on one or two things from the presentation, and writing one question or comment.
In Unit 6, students are provided with an opportunity to make text connections and engage in discussions with their peers as they share their responses to Making Dollars and Cents. Students share what they have learned about how we use money by citing textual evidence from all the selections read throughout the unit. The resource also provides multiple opportunities for students to “Turn and Talk” with a partner while reading the texts.
The materials engage students in collaborative discussions. Materials provide consistent opportunities for students to engage in discussions and practice grade-appropriate speaking skills using the standard conventions of the English language. The individual components of the daily lessons provide opportunities for students to speak and discuss individually, in partners, in whole-group formats, and in formal and informal settings. Sentence stems and modeled sentences are utilized to model the conventions of language, and students are expected to use appropriate conventions of the English language through their speaking.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, each collaborative conversation opportunity focuses on a different element to help students guide their conversations and implement the qualities of being a good listener and speaker. Students have the chance to have conversations in order to answer a question at the beginning of a unit, respond to questions about the text, use sentence stems to give their ideas, connect their conversations to writing, and ask each other questions when they do not understand. Questions about the author’s craft and text structure build on children’s listening and speaking abilities as they answer questions about increasingly complex texts. Students are encouraged to use text evidence in their discussions, which call for increasingly complex vocabulary as they compare new learning to previous knowledge. Students present their work to small groups; the presentation can be in the form of “Reader’s Theatre,” a completed “Research and Inquiry” project, or a published piece of their work. Students score themselves based on their presentation skills and their listening skills, and there are checklists and rubrics to support studentas in implementing this process. Strategies for presentations include speaking slowly, clearly, and with an appropriate speaking rate; and using volume, enunciation, and conventions of language.
In Unit 1, when reading Why We Work, students share how the photos and captions help them understand the text better and how the author compares the work people do; they use text evidence to support their answers.
In Unit 2, “Taking turns talking” focuses on waiting for a person to finish before speaking, quietly raising your hand to let others know when you would like a turn to speak, and asking others to share their opinions and ideas so that all children have a chance to share. “Be open to all ideas” focuses on respecting the opinions of others and asking questions if something is unclear. “Adding new ideas in conversation” focuses on staying focused on the topic of discussion, sharing information that builds on the ideas of others, and speaking clearly in complete sentences.
In Unit 3, students discuss what they learned about the world that surprised them during the unit. In groups, students compare what they learned about people and the world in order to answer the “Big Idea” question. The teacher models how to compare information by using examples from the leveled readers and texts read in the unit. Students review their class notes, writing assignments, and completed graphic organizers before they begin their discussions.
In Unit 6, during presentations of plant diagrams, teachers score students with a speaking-and- listening checklist, focusing on being a good presenter and listener. The speaking checklist includes standing up straight, looking at the audience, sharing information clearly, speaking loud enough so everyone can hear, and answering questions using details from research. The listening checklist includes making eye contact with the speaker, listening for details that answer questions about the topic, identifying what the speaker does well, and thinking of questions to ask. Teachers also use a rubric to score students on their presenting and listening skills.
The materials meet the criteria for engaging students in short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for different purposes. Materials support instruction for students to ask and generate questions for inquiry. Students generate and follow a research plan. Though not required in Grade 2, the materials support students as they identify relevant sources during inquiry and practice organizing and communicating ideas in accordance with the purpose of research.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, questions for research and inquiry are open-ended, and opportunities for both teacher and student to generate questions are offered. Students participate in read- alouds and close reads in which texts and ideas are revisited to make generalizations about topics and ideas that require reflection on previous learning. Materials support instruction for students to follow a logical, sequential research plan that builds in complexity over the course of the units. By Unit 3, students actively generate a research plan for themselves. In this process, the children develop a research plan, generate inquiry questions, record information, analyze and organize their notes, decide on their final message, and choose an appropriate delivery mode for their presentation. The purpose of the inquiry varies from class discussions, to partner talk, to shared writing and independent writing; plus, graphic organizers are provided to break down research tasks into manageable chunks. Students complete the steps of the research projects over the course of two weeks.
In each of the units, students can complete a research-and-inquiry project. The steps are presented, reviewed, and modeled by the teacher. Students use a step-by-step model in the “Reading/Writing Companion,” with opportunities to share with classmates before the project is completed, during the process, and after the project is complete. Students are given topics to research and at times can choose their own topic based on topics related to the unit.
In Unit 1, students have the opportunity to interview someone about their job. The teacher includes a mini-lesson on how to conduct an interview, explaining that an interview is a formal conversation where one person asks a series of prepared questions, and another person answers them; the person being interviewed is credited as the source of information. The teacher models how to generate questions about a person’s job using a think-aloud. She discusses the importance of note-taking by paraphrasing or using the exact wording with quotation marks. Students practice by working with partners to generate questions they would ask in an interview about spending money. They record their questions in the Reading/Writing Companion.
In Unit 2, students work with a partner to plan how they will present their “Life Cycle Diagram” to the class. Students use the “Presenting Checklist” to help improve the presentation. The Reading/Writing Companion provides recommendations to help students prepare for their presentation; some include “practicing in front of a friend, presenting the stages in order, speaking clearly and slowly so the class can understand, making eye contact with the audience, and citing reliable sources.”
In Unit 4, the teacher discusses primary and secondary sources by creating a T-chart and brainstorming examples; students discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. The teacher models how to locate and use reliable print and online resources, discusses how to identify primary and secondary resources, and reviews and models how to cite and record the sources used when gathering information. Students use a “Four-Door Foldable” to record answers to the who, what, when, where, and why questions. The teacher guides students to create a chart about a celebration from another country; students work on their project over the course of two weeks, as the teacher models, guides, and reviews step by step.
In Unit 6, students research different ways people use money. In the brainstorming stage, the teacher reminds students that “an important part of their planning is deciding what they want to learn about.” For instance, students may be curious about the ways people use banks and how banks might help people. Students use this information to generate their research questions. The teacher says students should focus their ideas on three different ways people use banks. The teacher suggests that children develop one paragraph for each of the ways they have listed; then, they can write a strong introduction and conclusion to make a five-paragraph research report. As students plan their research, the teacher reminds students that reports are “usually written to teach readers about a topic.” The materials instruct teachers: “Children should focus on sharing facts and information that are not commonly known. Also, stress the importance of planning to use at least one visual to support the facts in the text.” A rubric is provided so students can understand the expectations of the assignment. As students take notes for research, they record their sources. As they write their drafts, they work with partners and share what knowledge they learned by listening to each other’s reports. They also discuss how the information presented fits the purpose of the report.
The questions and tasks are designed so that students build and apply knowledge and skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, thinking, and language. Within each unit, students have opportunities to practice using multiple literacy skills through varied, interconnected tasks. Tasks integrate reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking; they include components of vocabulary, comprehension, and syntax. The materials provide opportunities for increased independence.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, students listen to and read stories; they respond to those texts by thinking and talking about them in partners, small groups, and whole-class settings. Students also think about and record their individual progress in learning strategies and skills. Students first learn skills in isolation and then apply those skills through authentic tasks that combine multiple skills into one task or project. Students have opportunities to complete formal tasks, such as writing projects and research projects, and informal tasks, such as responding to shared reading. With each text, students talk, read, and write about an “Essential Question” related to the unit’s “Big Idea.” Students have the opportunity to think about how the text connects to the Essential Question and how to apply new learning to their own lives. Students have discussions before, during, and after the text and engage in writing activities through the “Reading/Writing Companion,” which connects learning from the text to other lessons.
In Unit 1, students compare information by using examples from leveled readers and unit selections. Before they begin discussions, students review their class notes, writing assignments, and completed graphic organizers. Student groups use an “Accordion Foldable™” to record comparisons of texts. As a class, students share any personal or emotional connections they felt to texts they read and heard over the course of the unit. At the end of the discussions, groups reflect on their collaboration and acknowledge each other’s contributions.
Students prepare for their presentations by including details, telling the text in a sequence that makes sense, and including a conclusion. For culminating projects, students make oral presentations; they use a checklist to help them focus on important parts as they rehearse.
In Unit 2, the interactive read-aloud text Wild Animal Families allows students to think and talk about the Essential Question “How are offspring like their parents?” Students complete a graphic organizer together, and they use words from their graphic organizer to discuss their ideas with a partner or in small groups. Students listen to the read-aloud text and respond to the text both orally and through writing. Students are presented with sentence stems to help guide their discussions, and they use vocabulary words in their oral and written responses.
In Unit 4, students use a rubric in the Reading/Writing Companion to evaluate their understanding of the skills learned in the unit as excellent, good, fair, or needs work; they also note something they want to improve. After completing the rubric, students think about the texts read in the unit, make a “text-to-self connection,” and share with a partner. At the end of the unit, students present their work to small groups or the whole class. The options for this activity include “Reader’s Theater,” a “Research and Inquiry” project, or a self-selected piece of writing. Mini-lessons are provided in speaking (e.g., rehearse in front of a mirror, speak slowly, work collaboratively, practice using visuals and props) and listening (e.g., listen actively to facts and ideas about the topic, focus on the speaker’s presentation, and wait to be recognized before making appropriate contributions).
In Unit 5, as students study biographies, there are lessons in which they discuss features of a biography, discuss the expert model biography text, and discuss the mentor texts in the literature anthology. Then, as students write their own biographies, they discuss the purpose and audience of their work and the sequence they should use when telling their stories.
The materials support distributed practice and provide scaffolds for students to demonstrate the integration of skills that spiral over the course of the year. Skills and strategies are introduced and are spiraled throughout the year, allowing for continued practice that is integrated across the daily instructional schedule.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout each unit, the materials provide repeated opportunities to integrate skills across the curriculum, including reading, phonics, vocabulary, writing, and speaking. Literacy skills continually spiral back into the materials; there are distributed practice opportunities for each newly introduced concept or skill. Students read and write every week and within every unit, and the genres they are reading and writing spiral throughout the year.
The “Reading/Writing Companion” allows students to read, think about, and discuss topics related to the texts each week. Students use question prompts to talk, draw, and write to demonstrate their understanding of content and literacy skills. Scaffolds allow for gradual release when students no longer need them. There is prompting to use the practice book for additional support and practice; the Reading/Writing Companion provides picture support, sentence stems, and clear steps for tasks. The “Teacher Edition” includes call-out boxes called “Access Complex Text” that provide “scaffolding for seven different elements that may make a text complex.”
Scaffolding opportunities—such as group discussions, anchor charts, and modeling thought processes using a think-aloud—are built into the components of the lessons, with guidance provided for the teacher. Each unit includes a culminating writing project in which students utilize the writing process in its entirety to compose a piece of writing. The genre of writing varies from unit to unit, but the process is repeated. The resource increases the rigor of the content as the year progresses; as students review a skill they previously learned, the materials include additional components to the skill to help students make connections and deepen their learning.
Units 1–6 include three different genre studies, each focusing on a particular comprehension strategy within the texts being read. These strategies are repeated and distributed throughout the year, so students have frequent practice and are able to use the strategies with a variety of genres and texts. Students focus on the skill of rereading in Unit 2 with expository texts, in Unit 3 with fiction texts, in Unit 4 with additional expository texts, and in Unit 6 with myths. Students read realistic fiction in Units 1, 4, and 6; expository texts in Units 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6; and poetry in Units 2, 4, and 6. Opportunities to engage with these genres of text multiple times throughout the year allow students to apply newly learned strategies to familiar genres and give them the chance to dig deeper into these genres. In
Units 1 and 5, students have the opportunity to practice making connections. In Unit 1, the “Essential Question” is “How are families around the world the same and different?” During the first reading of Maria Celebrates Brazil, students identify key ideas and details about families and friends, take notes, and summarize. During the second reading, students analyze the text, craft, and structure. After the third reading, students integrate knowledge and ideas as well as make “text-to-text connections” by comparing a song included in the Reading/Writing Companion to Maria Celebrates Brazil and to other texts they have read about families. Students discuss what they have learned from the selections and the song about friends and families doing things together. In the Reading/Writing Companion, they circle a clue from the song about how friends are like family; the materials include a call-out box containing sentence starters to talk about friends and families: “1) Friends are like family because…. 2) My family spends time together….” In Unit 5, the Essential Question is “What do good citizens do?” and students must make connections between the song America the Beautiful and the texts they have read about good citizenship. In the Reading/Writing Companion, students identify parts of the song that describe how America is beautiful; they use this information to discuss and write how good citizens keep America beautiful.
The materials provide deliberate practice in making inferences and citing text evidence. In Unit 3, students read Mr. Putter & Tabby See the Stars. Students identify clues in the text as to why Mrs. Teaberry likes to feed Mr. Putter “most of all.” The class first discusses how the reader knows that the two characters like each other; then, students write clues from the text that show that Mrs. Teaberry likes Mr. Putter more than other people. In Unit 6, students read King Midas and the Golden Touch and cite text evidence about King Midas’s love for his daughter; this allows the students to identify the story’s theme. Students first discuss why the author begins and ends the story by telling about the king’s love for his daughter; they use clues from the text about the character’s motivation in order to identify the theme of the story.
The materials provide explicit systematic instruction in phonetic knowledge and opportunities for students to practice both in and out of context. The materials contain a research-based sequence of grade-level foundation skills instruction and opportunities for student practice to achieve grade-level mastery. Materials systematically develop grade-level phonics patterns addressed in the Grade 2 English Language Arts and Reading TEKS, and there are opportunities for students to apply grade-level phonetic knowledge to connected texts and tasks. There is explicit instruction in grade-level high-frequency words and sufficient chances to read the words both in and out of context.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The introduction of the “Teacher’s Edition” states: “Wonders offers a thorough grounding in foundational skills, from the first steps in phonemic awareness and concepts of print, through sophisticated academic vocabulary and advanced morphological analysis.” Many experts are quoted throughout the introduction pages, such as Dr. Vicki Gibson. Materials reference white papers describing the research basis behind the creation of the materials. The scope and sequence shows that phonics skills grow in complexity and spiral as the year progresses. It also showcases the sequence of high-frequency words that are introduced throughout the year.
The phonics patterns addressed within the materials systematically address second-grade-level TEKS. The year starts out with students focusing on the phonics patterns of short vowel sounds and two-letter blends such as r-blends, s-blends, t-blends, and l-blends. Students also begin focusing on long vowel sounds with the e at the end of the word. As the year progresses, students continue to focus on long vowel sounds with irregular vowel patterns such as ai, ay, ew, ei, igh, ie, oa, ow, and oe. Towards the end of the year, students focus on diphthongs such as ou, ow, oy, and oi. Students also focus on variant vowels such as oo, u, u_e, ew, ue, and ui. Students wrap up the year focusing on short vowel digraphs, closed and open syllables, final stable syllables, vowel team syllables, and words with CVCe syllables. Second-grade materials include a structural analysis component that includes instruction in open and closed syllables, inflectional endings, prefixes, and other skills.
Students learn about and practice phonics patterns during daily “Word Work” routines. In these lessons, students focus on skills in guided practice with the teacher, independently in the practice book, and in decodable and leveled readers. Grade 2 students are encouraged to apply their knowledge of spelling rules and patterns to their own writing. Spelling activities throughout the week focus on word sorts based on spelling patterns. Materials provide spiraled reviews, opportunities to proofread spelling words, and opportunities to explore word meanings for students. Materials include all patterns and types outlined in the TEKS.
In Unit 2, students read the decodable reader Duke and Bud’s Run. Before reading, students review the week’s high-frequency words and the letter U and its short u sound, spelled u_e. The text is read with students pointing to each word, sounding out decodable words, and saying high-frequency words quickly. After reading, students answer comprehension questions, retell the story with a partner, and read the story aloud to practice fluency.
High-frequency words are taught with a “Read/Spell/Write” routine. In Unit 5, the teacher displays the ten new high-frequency words for the week: answer, been, body, build, head, heard, minutes, myself, pretty, pushed. The teacher points to each word card, reads the word with the class, and has the students repeat the word in a sentence the teacher provides. The teacher then points out the spelling of the word, and students spell the word in the air as they say each letter. They also point out any irregularities in sound-spellings: for example, the /i/ sound in been is spelled ee. Once all of the new words have been introduced using the same routine, partners write sentences using each word. Lastly, the teacher posts ten sentences and has the class identify the high-frequency word in each one. A decodable reader for the week contains all the high-frequency words so students can read them in context.
In Unit 6, students read the decodable reader Clever Doggy to practice applying their decoding skills and the week’s high-frequency words. Before reading, the teacher reviews the high- frequency words and open and closed syllables. Students read the title and make predictions about the text. The whole group reads the text and answers comprehension questions. In partners, students retell the story. With a partner, the text is read again for fluency, focusing on accuracy. Also in Unit 6, students begin by reading and identifying high-frequency words such as door, front, order, probably, remember, someone, tomorrow, what’s, worry, and yesterday. The students go through the Read/Spell/Write routine with each of the words. Then, students work in pairs to use the words in conversation and finally write a sentence for each word, ensuring that the word is used correctly in context.
The materials provide frequent opportunities for students to practice and develop fluency while reading a wide variety of grade-level texts at an appropriate rate, accurately and with prosody. Materials include instruction in fluency, including rate, accuracy, and prosody. Fluent reading is modeled daily by the teacher, and specific short segments of lessons can emphasize fluency. Opportunities for students to build fluency are given through choral reading, echo reading, and partner reading. The materials provide opportunities and routines for teachers to regularly monitor and provide feedback to students on their fluency practice with rate, accuracy, and prosody.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The materials’ fluency routine has four steps as outlined by the “Instructional Routines Handbook”: 1, Explain what fluency means; 2, Model fluency with a read-aloud, selecting an aspect to emphasize; 3, Lead students through “Guided Practice,” using echo reading, cloze reading, or choral reading; 4, Practice fluency with partners, with a teacher, individually, or using the “Practice Book.” The materials recommend additional strategies, such as audio recordings and focusing on early phonics and decoding skills.
The materials use “Oral Reading Fluency” to screen and progress monitor students’ growth in and mastery of fluency skills. The materials provide a “Fluency Assessment” component that can be used every unit to monitor progress; materials recommend using one of the thirty passages to assess fluency in Grade 2, with at least two selections every two to three weeks for most students. The materials also provide assessments in fluency-building activities such as letter naming, phoneme segmentation, and sight word fluency. Additionally, throughout the “Teacher’s Edition,” there are sidebars titled “Check for Success” that remind teachers to take anecdotal notes of student performance; they refer teachers to use a rubric to record children's progress and note whether the student can or cannot perform the targeted skill, such as identify high-frequency words, decode words with specific diphthongs, or other spelling patterns. The progress-monitoring page at the end of each week includes a fluency assessment. The chart says, “Conduct group fluency assessments using the Letter Naming, Phoneme Segmentation, and Sight Word Fluency assessments.” At the end of the unit, the materials provide fluency assessments with expected goals. If students perform below the expected goal, materials provide reteaching lessons in the online “Fluency” PDF.
In Unit 1, teachers explain that reading with expression means “changing the tone of your voice to show different emotions such as sadness, happiness, fear, anger, and excitement.” If a character is happy, students should read in a way a person’s voice sounds when they are happy. The teacher also explains rate, and students are encouraged to make the rate sound like regular talking when reading fiction. The teacher then models prosody by reading a page from Big Red Lollipop, stressing the italicized word and pointing out how to pause for punctuation. Students practice in pairs, and the teacher monitors pairs and provides corrective feedback as needed.
In Unit 2, using the text Eagles and Eaglets, the teacher explains and models how to use intonation while reading a text. The teacher reminds students that reading with intonation means making your voice go higher or lower or become louder or quieter. The teacher explains that as people read and understand a text, they use their tone of voice to show meaning. The teacher models reading the text, pausing at the comma and reading the third line in an inviting, enthusiastic tone. The teacher asks the students what they noticed when the teacher paused and where the teacher changed his/her voice. Then the students echo read as the teacher reads an additional page aloud. Finally, the class is divided into three groups; the teacher reads a sentence, and one group echo reads the sentence; this step is repeated until all groups have read a sentence after the teacher. Students practice a similar activity, reading text that contains exclamation marks, and they practice reading with expression as they read the fable “The Boy Who Cried Wolf.” Students also read the text “At Home in Nome” with a partner while focusing on accuracy. The teacher guides students to run their fingers under the text as they read and note whether they are correctly reading the words on the page, monitoring themselves, and providing feedback to their partners. As students are reading, the teacher circulates the room and listens in. If students are having difficulty reading accurately, the teacher has them start again at the beginning of the page. If students are reading too quickly, the teacher suggests that they should slow down and read as they would speak.
In Unit 4, after reading Happy New Year, the teacher explains and models intonation. The teacher reads the first two lines of the text with intonation and asks students if they noticed the change of voice. The teacher continues modeling intonation, accuracy, rate, and pausing at commas. Students practice by echo reading with the teacher. The class is divided into four groups, with a higher-level reader in each. As the teacher reads, groups take turns echoing. The groups work together to practice reading with intonation. Half the group reads, the other half echoes, and then the halves switch roles.
In Unit 6, when using the text “Money Madness,” the teacher reminds students of the importance of correct phrasing when reading aloud. The teacher explains that phrases are natural groupings of words within sentences and that readers use phrasing to convey the sense of what the words and sentences mean. The teacher begins by reading a paragraph aloud for students, using natural and correct phrasing. The teacher writes sentences from this paragraph on the board, marking them so that children can see where the phrases start and end. Then students echo read as the teacher continues to read. Students identify clues that are used to determine where phrases begin and end. Students continue to echo read as the teacher reads using the correct phrasing. Finally, students work together to practice reading with good phrasing. The teacher circulates the room and provides feedback as needed. The teacher reminds students to read with accuracy, or to say all the words correctly, and to read at an appropriate rate.
The materials provide placement assessments and information to assist in foundational skills instruction, as well as instruction and direction to support teachers in assessing students’ foundational skills toward grade-level mastery and in planning for small-group instruction and differentiation based on student needs.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The “Placement and Diagnostic Assessment” resource in the publisher materials guides teachers to place students into one of three categories based on their performances on placement and diagnostic assessments: 1, “On Level”; 2, “Approaching Level”; 3, “Beyond Level.” The resource provides associated materials for each of the categories. Initial placement decisions are made based on the “Phonological Awareness Subtest” and “Letter Naming Fluency Assessment” or the “Listening Comprehension Tests.” Materials emphasize using multiple measures in the assessment process, noting: “The process starts with measurement and scoring (test results, observations). The next step is to compare and interpret the information you have gathered. The third step is to make instructional decisions based on your conclusions. This process is ongoing.” The “Assessment Planning and Pacing Guide” is provided to guide teachers to utilize the assessments at specific points throughout the year to both screen and progress monitor students’ foundational skills knowledge. The materials also provide alignment information for “DIBELS Next” and “TPRI” screeners for the publisher materials.
For each assessment listed in the Placement and Diagnostic Assessment, the materials provide sections titled “Instructions for Administering the Assessment,” “Directions for Scoring,” and the assessment itself. Prior to a specific subset of tests, the materials include sections titled “How to Use the Assessment,” which notes the time(s) of year the assessment should be administered and in what manner the assessment should be administered (whole group, informally, individually, etc.); and “How to Interpret the Results,” which notes more general trends in planning and differentiation needs for varying levels of student performance.
During or immediately after the “Start Smart” unit, materials note that a foundational skills diagnostic assessment, including phonemic awareness, sight word fluency/high-frequency words and alphabet recognition using letter naming fluency; a phonics survey; and leveled passages can be used to determine reading level and comprehension abilities. The Placement and Diagnostic Assessment provides guidance on how to interpret the results of each specific assessment. Students are placed into one of the three categories previously mentioned, and the student’s online course dashboards then indicate relevant leveled reads and activities according to the student’s level. The materials also reference “Tier 2 Intervention Online PDFs” to fill in skill gaps as needed.
At the beginning of each unit, the teacher uses the “Data Dashboard” to gather individual student data for information to be used in grouping students. There are recommendations to extend learning for students performing above level and support for students that are performing below level. The “Daily Check for Success” results are recorded in an online rubric, and the materials provide grouping options based on those results. The “Online Assessment Center” provides an “Item Analysis Report” and a “Standard Analysis Report.” The Data Dashboard has “Activity Reports,” “Skills Reports,” and “Progress Reports.” The teacher is guided to online resources for reteaching. “Running Records” guide the teacher to use the student’s instructional reading level for regrouping. Students below a certain level receive reteaching in specific below-level areas.
The materials use “Oral Reading Fluency” (ORF) to screen and progress monitor students’ growth in and mastery of fluency skills. To screen students, the materials recommend teachers compare a student’s performance to the ORF norms using the WCPM benchmarks three times in the year. The materials note: “A student evidencing grade-level fluency should generate a score within a range of ten WCPM above or below the 50th percentile benchmark. Students below or significantly below this benchmark may be at risk.” The materials offer other diagnostic fluency assessments to identify if students struggling with fluency have possible issues in decoding and prosody.
At the end of the Grade 2 Start Smart unit, the teacher is instructed to assess each student’s fluency level to establish a fluency benchmark and determine which students are below grade level, on level, and above grade level, based on fluency norms. The teacher uses fluency passages to determine oral reading fluency rate, oral reading accuracy, prosody level, and words-correct-per-minute scores correlated to the norms.
In Unit 6, the materials provide the teacher with the next steps based on the data that has been collected from multiple sources throughout the unit. Teachers are given guidance on making regrouping decisions by checking student progress, determining how English Learners are progressing, and considering whether students are ready to “Level Up” or “Accelerate.” Teachers are also given guidance on whether to review or reinforce particular skills or concepts to reteach them, target instruction to meet children’s strengths/needs, or determine which lessons to provide to different groups of children. After assessing students, the teacher has two options based on how students do with fluency. If students read 0–80 WCPM, then the teacher is instructed to teach the lesson from Sections 2–8 of the “Fluency” PDF. If students read 81–89 WCPM, then the teacher is instructed to teach the lesson from Sections 1, 9, or 10 of the Fluency PDF.
The materials regularly and systematically offer assessment opportunities that genuinely measure student progress as indicated by the program’s scope and sequence. The materials include both formal and informal assessment opportunities throughout each unit and provide teachers with guidance and direction to respond to individual students’ literacy needs.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The materials contain daily, end-of-week, and end-of-unit formal and informal assessments that provide data to the teacher to be used for whole-class, small-group, and individualized targeted instruction. The materials contain intervention and reteaching resources provided in small- group lessons and “Intervention Online PDFs.” At the end of each week, a chart is provided with a breakdown of skill categories (such as phonological awareness, onset and rime blending, etc.) with correlating TEKS and how the skills are assessed informally within the program. The Grade 2 “Teacher’s Editions” contain informal assessment opportunities through a weekly “Check for Success” list with specific look-fors in formatively assessing students. Materials provide teacher guidance in response to student needs, including activities and additional exercises within the “Practice Book” and/or the “Reading/Writing Companion.” After every three weeks of instruction, materials provide opportunities to assess foundational skills taught in the unit. After every six weeks of instruction, a more comprehensive assessment of comprehension skills, foundational skills, high-frequency words, and category words is provided. The materials use “Oral Reading Fluency” to screen and progress monitor students’ growth in and mastery of fluency skills. The materials provide a “Fluency Assessment” component that can be used every unit to monitor progress. The materials provide assessments in fluency-building activities such as letter naming, phoneme segmentation, and sight word fluency. The materials contain 24 fluency passages that teachers can use to assess whether students can decode phonologically and automatically recognize words by sight.
In Unit 2, students learn to differentiate words between the short o and long o sound during phonics instruction and practice using the sounds. The teacher checks for success, considering if the student can decode words with the short o sound or the long o sound using o_e. Following this check, the teacher can either reteach the skill (for approaching learners), develop the skill (for English Learners), review the skill (for on-level learners), or extend the skill (for beyond- level learners). When assessing for fluency, the materials state the goal in Unit 2 is 40–60 words correct per minute and the accuracy rate goal is 95% or higher. In Unit 2, the teacher formally assesses consonant digraphs ch, tch, sh, ph, th, ng, and wh using the practice book and digital activities. The unit assessment contains tasks for students on the short and long o sounds, the short and long u sounds, soft c and g sounds, consonant digraphs, and three-letter blends. For example, the assessment asks students, “Which word has the three-letter blend as strong? Spring, wrong, or strict?” The materials guide teachers to reteach tested phonics skills if the student scores below a 70% on the phonics portion of the assessment using the “Phonics/Word Study” PDF.
In Unit 6, after receiving explicit instruction on how to use appropriate phrasing, students work in groups to practice reading with good phrasing. Students take turns reading, and the teacher circulates the room, providing feedback as needed. The teacher reminds students to read with accuracy, or to say all the words correctly, and to read at an appropriate rate. When assessing students, there is a chart in the teacher’s materials that guides teachers on the next steps based on how students do on the assessment. If students read 0–80 WCPM, then the teacher is instructed to teach the lesson from Sections 2–8 of the “Fluency” PDF. If students read 81–89 WCPM, then the teacher is instructed to teach the lesson from Sections 1, 9, or 10 of the Fluency PDF. In Unit 6, after a “Word Work” lesson on open and closed syllables, the teacher records student progress in the online rubric. The teacher determines if students can decode words with open and closed syllables. Following this check, the teacher can either reteach the skill (for approaching learners), develop the skill (for English Learners), review the skill (for on- level learners), or extend the skill (for beyond-level learners).
The materials include supports for students who demonstrate proficiency above grade level. There are planning and learning opportunities for students with literacy skills above those expected at grade level; these opportunities include extensions and differentiation. Ideas for differentiating and scaffolds are included throughout the daily instructional schedule, and there are opportunities for additional leveled instruction in skills and concepts taught in a whole- group setting.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, the materials include call-out boxes titled “Gifted and Talented” for students to extend their reading, research areas of interest, and write about what they have learned. Sidebars provide tips throughout the daily instructional schedule and small-group plans for students beyond grade level. The materials allow teachers to provide challenging questions during discussion or tasks after instruction, and the students are able to self-identify when, and if, they are ready to participate in these activities. By rereading the “Shared Read” or “Anchor Text” multiple times, the teacher can take the discussion to deeper levels of understanding. The materials also include small-group differentiation lessons, which take all literacy skills into higher levels of depth or complexity by offering challenging texts, open-ended tasks, and online access to activities. At the end of each week of instruction, there are opportunities for the teacher to assess and gather information on student progress to plan for the next week or unit; summative assessment opportunities are included at the end of the unit, testing comprehension, high-frequency words, phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, and vocabulary.
In Unit 2, there are numerous sidebars and tips for students who are above grade level. Along with the “Suggested Lesson Plan,” there is guidance for the teacher to use the “Check for Success” to determine each student’s needs; this provides activities for students that are performing beyond grade level. For example, the “Gifted and Talented” box has activities to synthesize and extend; students list jobs in healthcare they think are interesting and discuss if they would consider any of them for their own careers. Students use facts they have learned to do additional research to find out more about the jobs.
In Unit 3, students read the online differentiated genre passage “Helping Out in the Community,” which demonstrates how one man helps out in his community and explains why his work is important. Students closely read the passage and take notes, annotating key ideas and details, unfamiliar words, and questions they have. Students discuss the passage, with an emphasis on the author’s purpose and craft. Students write an editorial for a newspaper, taking the position that people should help out in their communities and explaining why it is important. Students synthesize information from their notes and the selections they read to create a list of ways that they might help out in their communities; they trade their lists with a partner for evaluation.
In Unit 5, for an extension in grammar, the teacher is instructed to have groups of children write three-sentence paragraphs using as many pronouns as they can; for an extension in spelling, children can create sentences for their other spelling and review words. During small- group reading, a sidebar in the lesson says, “The On Level challenges children by including more domain-specific words and complex sentence structures.”
In Unit 6, students who are reading above grade level are introduced to the text “How to Be a Smart Shopper.” Students are guided to think of the “Essential Question”—“How do we use money?”—as they read this text; students respond to the reading, keeping the Essential Question in mind and providing text evidence as they write. As a challenge, students learn about money in other countries and make a chart to list the country and money names; students take information from their notes and create an illustrated guide about how to manage or spend wisely. Students select a format that interests them and show what they have learned about how to manage their money, save it, and spend it wisely.
The materials provided meet the criteria for including supports for students who demonstrate proficiency below grade level. There are planning and learning opportunities for students with literacy skills below those expected at grade level; these opportunities include extensions and differentiation throughout the daily instructional schedule. There are also opportunities for additional instruction in skills and concepts taught in a whole-group setting. Materials include embedded supports in the “Teacher Edition” for students who demonstrate proficiency below grade level, specifically through small-group instruction, opportunities for teachers to remediate skills in reading and writing, and targeted intervention, including Tier 2 resources.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, teachers provide varying levels of questions during discussion or tasks after instruction, and the students are able to self-identify when, and if, they are ready to participate in these activities. By rereading the “Big Book” multiple times, the teacher can take the discussion to deeper levels of understanding for all students. The materials also include small-group differentiation lessons to practice specific literacy skills that may prevent students from reaching grade-level mastery, while still modifying tasks or instruction to grant access to grade-level content and skills. With leveled readers, there are activities for phonological/phonemic awareness, phonics, oral vocabulary, high-frequency words, and comprehension. Additional supports for students approaching grade level include giving students additional practice with a skill after it has been taught whole class, reading passages with students and working through the questions with them, students drawing a picture for their writing and dictating their sentences to the teacher, or students listening to a selection after it has been read during class to support comprehension. At the end of each week of instruction, there are opportunities for the teacher to assess and gather information on student progress to plan for the next week or unit. At the end of the unit, summative assessment opportunities are included for comprehension, high-frequency words, phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, and vocabulary.
In the “Start Smart” unit, lessons are designed to acclimate all students to literacy routines. Materials provide several sidebar supports for teachers, titled “Teach It Your Way.” In Unit 2, students read the leveled reader Animal Families, and the four versions are at different Lexile levels to support student learning. Students who demonstrate skills below grade level use a “Level F” book with a 320 Lexile level; during small groups, students who are reading below the expected grade level practice more foundational skills. For example, students practice comprehension skills such as main topic and key ideas, but they spend a large portion of the time on “Word Work,” such as phonological and phonemic awareness, phonics, high- frequency words, and structural analysis.
In Unit 5, after a lesson on synonyms, students work with a partner to reread a sentence, then clarify words with similar meanings; students write a sentence using a pair of synonyms. To build comprehension, teachers introduce paraphrasing; partners read the text in the “Reading/Writing Companion,” paraphrase the information, share their sentences, and discuss the process of retelling ideas in their own words. During writing, after reading the anchor text Cesar Chavez, students work with a partner to summarize the text orally, using their notes, and they write a summary independently in their “Writer’s Notebooks.”
In Unit 6, students work on comparative endings during a Word Work lesson. In this lesson, students use the endings -er and -est to compare people, places, things, or actions. After modeling how to use this strategy and engaging in guided practice, the resource provides differentiated instruction for students at the Tier 2 level (approaching grade level). An “I Do, We Do, You Do” process is provided for students, which includes reviewing how to add the endings -er and -est to words, as well as writing sentences for provided words. Then, the students practice with additional words while the teacher provides corrective feedback. Finally, students independently add endings to the adjectives hot, happy, and cute and discuss their meanings. This provides additional explicit instruction in order to help students achieve success.
Materials include accommodations for linguistics commensurate with various levels of English language proficiency as defined by the ELPS, with grade-appropriate scaffolds as defined by the Grade 2 ELAR TEKS. Specific first-language supports and vocabulary supports are provided.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout the materials, supports are included in the literature “Big Book,” interactive read- aloud cards, anchor and shared-read texts, phonemic awareness activities, phonics-related tasks, the high-frequency word routine, grammar lessons, and other literacy routines. Each section is divided into three levels based on students’ EL needs: “Beginning,” “Intermediate,” and “Advanced/Advanced High”; sometimes, there is a sidebar that also offers “Newcomer” support. The weekly plans include sidebars with tips for ELs. In the “Student Outcomes” pages included in each week’s introduction, the TEKS that address oral language and oral vocabulary acquisition are listed by number and include a brief description; however, the ELPS addressed in the lessons are only listed by number.
Throughout all units, support for vocabulary development is targeted to whole-group instruction. The weekly plans include sidebars with tips for ELs within the various lesson components, including introducing concepts, phonics, comprehension, speaking, vocabulary, writing, and grammar. A routine that is age-appropriate for Grade 2 students is included as a year-long plan for building oral vocabulary. Teachers can use the “Visual Vocabulary Cards” as they define, give an example, and ask a question related to the vocabulary term; also, a photograph on one side of the card provides a visual representation.
In Unit 1, students read and discuss the literature Big Book This School Year Will Be the Best! The materials provide EL supports for visualizing. The teacher asks, “Where are the children sitting?” “What does the word circle help you visualize, or create a picture of, in your mind?” and “What else do you see in the picture?” The materials guide the teacher to support students in using nonverbal cues to share information when they are not able to do so verbally.
In Unit 2, when students read the shared-reading text Eagles and Eaglets, the resource encourages teachers to pre-teach vocabulary from the text. Then, Beginning or early Intermediate ELs are encouraged to listen to the selection summary, which is provided in many native languages, and use the online scaffolded shared read to support their learning. Additionally, students listen to summaries of the shared-reading texts in Unit 2 in their native language and then in English to help them access the texts and develop listening comprehension. The teacher then helps students ask and answer questions with a partner. Sentence frames are provided to support student discourse, such as “This text is mostly about….”
In Unit 4, a sidebar gives guidance to the teacher for Newcomer ELs. Students listen to a summary of the anchor text in their native language and then in English to help develop listening comprehension. Students ask and answer questions with a partner, using sentence frames as needed. In small-group plans for vocabulary building, Beginning ELs write clues in their native language and/or draw pictures.
The materials include assessments and guidance for teachers and administrators to monitor progress, including interpreting and acting on data. The materials provide multiple opportunities for teachers to assess students using formative and summative assessments. The assessments include scoring information. Guidance is provided for responding to student performance through the creation of instructional groups and suggestions for further instruction.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, student learning is compared to a benchmark in the “Check for Success” sidebars: “Can the student…? Yes or No.” If the answer to the question is “No,” the materials include a reteaching activity for students. If the answer is “Yes,” the materials include a review activity for students working at grade level and an extension activity for students working above grade level. At the end of each unit, the materials provide generalized steps for interpreting data and making decisions. The teacher is guided to use the online rubric to record student progress. After each genre, the materials provide opportunities to assess skills taught within the unit and a more comprehensive assessment at the end of each unit. Additional assessment options include a “Fluency Assessment,” “Progress Monitoring Assessments,” and “Texas Test Preparation and Practice.”
The “Teacher Edition” includes specific steps for responding to skill deficits. For example, if students struggle to identify the beginning, middle, and end of a fiction text, the materials direct the teacher to corresponding lessons for reteaching.
In Unit 1, after a discussion identifying character, setting, and events in a story, students complete a chart with these headings in their “Reading/Writing Companion.” The Check for Success sidebar points to specific pages in the Teacher Edition containing small-group lessons to respond if students can or cannot identify the characters, setting, and events in the text.
In Unit 4, the two-week assessment includes text evidence, character, setting, plot, compare and contrast, similes and analytical writing. Informally assessed skills include grammar, mechanics and usage, spelling, phonics, research, and oral reading fluency. The practice book pages, digital activities, word sorts, checklists, rubrics, and fluency assessments provide opportunities for informal assessment of students. The assessment results can be used for grouping students.
The materials include year-long plans and supports for teachers to identify the needs of students and opportunities to provide differentiated instruction to meet the needs of a range of learners, ensuring grade-level success. Materials provide an overarching plan for teachers to engage students in multiple groupings, and the plan is comprehensive and attentive to differentiation through many opportunities. Substantial support is given through annotations, sidebar supports, and call-outs in the “Teacher Edition.” Annotations within the Teacher Edition are comprehensive and thorough; a novice teacher would have the guidance needed to implement the materials. Materials include annotations and supports for engaging students, and components are included for implementing ancillary resource materials and progress monitoring. The annotations and ancillary materials provide support for learning and assistance for teachers. Materials contain an emphasis on “Social-Emotional Learning.” Teachers have materials and comprehensive support to create a classroom community that promotes literacy.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, the program’s philosophy, “Teach It Your Way,” allows for embedded differentiation based on students’ needs. Tips are provided for students who are approaching grade level, on grade level, and beyond grade level as well as for English Learners (ELs). Teachers have the opportunity to group students at different levels or provide differentiation based on data analysis throughout the year; support is provided throughout multiple components of literacy instruction, such as small-group reading, phonics support, vocabulary support, independent reading and writing, and research and inquiry. Targeted support, which includes Tier 2 resources, is provided for students who need additional instruction and rehearsal of skills. Materials emphasize social-emotional learning, and teachers have materials and comprehensive support to create a classroom community that promotes literacy. The “Teaching the Whole Child” section states that the lessons and sidebars on classroom culture “set the stage for collaboration.” The “Resources” section describes ancillary materials that are available for small groups and for guided reading lessons; the scope and sequence provides a year-long plan of how learning is sequenced and spiraled, thus allowing teachers to make short- and long-term plans for groupings. Materials provide opportunities and supports for teachers in identifying students’ needs.
In Unit 1, after a discussion in which they identify character, setting, and events in a story, students complete a chart with these headings in their “Reading/Writing Companion.” The “Check for Success” sidebar points to specific pages in the Teacher Edition, in the small-group lessons, for how to respond if students can or cannot identify the characters, setting, and events in the text.
In Unit 2, when rereading the text Eagles and Eaglets, differentiated reading opportunities are provided for teachers in a sidebar note. For students who are approaching grade-level reading, the teacher is encouraged to pre-teach note-taking techniques and interesting words.
In Unit 4, during fluency practice, the students work in small groups to practice reading accurately and with expression. Half of the group reads a paragraph, and the other half echoes. During the guided-practice part of a study-skills lesson, each pair or group uses a foldable to record answers to questions.
The materials meet the criteria, providing implementation support for teachers and administrators, including a TEKS-aligned scope and sequence outlining the essential knowledge and skills that are taught and the specific order in which they are presented to build across grade levels. The scope and sequence includes a 180-day schedule of literacy instruction for the school year, which could be adapted to a 220-day schedule.
Examples include but are not limited to:
The “Teacher Edition” includes a scope and sequence of six units (each six weeks long). Each unit begins with an overview of the texts and concepts taught in the unit and the student expectations for the components of the unit. The text sets for each week are provided to teachers so they know the literature “Big Book,” paired texts, interactive read-aloud books, shared reading, leveled readers, and additional books to choose from for the week. In addition to providing the titles of the recommended books, materials provide explicit lessons and instruction to support teachers in their instruction.
The materials include a comprehensive list of Grade 2 English Language Arts TEKS correlations and corresponding units with page numbers in which the indicated TEKS are covered. Additionally, a correlation list for Grade 2 Social Studies and Science TEKS covered in the units is included. Within each lesson, TEKS are listed alongside the objective.
The text complexity supplemental resource provides information on the texts that are taught throughout the year, including their quantitative complexity levels and how they are incorporated into the units.
The first unit includes implementation support to establish class routines related to texts, vocabulary, mini-lessons, writing, fluency, and more. The information provided explicitly explains the effectiveness of the routine and how to use the routine with students.
Annotations and sidebar supports are included throughout the materials to support teachers and administrators in program implementation. Examples of support for implementation found in the Teacher Edition include instructional routines (“Oral Vocabulary,” “Close Reading,” “Retelling,” etc.); English Learner (EL) scaffolds for the Beginning, Intermediate, Advanced, and Advanced High EL levels; supports for “Differentiating Reading” instruction and tips for “Accessing Complex Text and Text Features,” “Extend the Lesson,” and “Collaborative Conversations.” Lessons include specific support for questions and tasks directly related to the texts being read, and materials give teacher support in the format of whole-group, small-group, and independent instruction. Many literacy routines, such as the writing process and “Word Work,” include support for implementing the routine as well as specific support for tasks.
The materials have a visual design that is neither distracting nor chaotic. Materials include appropriately designed white space that supports and does not distract from student learning. The pictures and graphics are supportive of student learning and engagement without being visually distracting.
Examples include but are not limited to:
Throughout all units, the spaces for students to write include age-appropriate and developmentally appropriate lines and spacing as well as areas for students to draw. Certain fonts and graphics are used consistently throughout the workbook, which promotes student understanding of directions. Photographs are included in the “Reading/Writing Companion” for students; many feature children of a similar age and are colorful and engaging. The charts and graphs provided on the pages align with what the students learn and adapt to meet their academic needs; icons indicate actions.
In Unit 1, the Reading/Writing Companion includes graphic organizers for students to make inferences about characters. After reading the realistic fiction text Big Red Lollipop, students write clues from the text and clues from the illustrations into the graphic organizer. Students then use what they wrote to complete the bottom portion of the graphic organizer, “Rubina’s Feelings.” Underneath the graphic organizer, students fill in the following stem: “The author shows Rubina is feeling….” A tip box on the side of the page titled “Combine Information” reminds students to look back at a page in the text, think about why going to a birthday party is important to Rubina, and use text evidence to support their response.
In Unit 4, a workbook page provides practice for spelling r-controlled words. A word bank lists words that are used to complete the page. There is ample spacing and white space for the student response. Students find and cite text evidence to identify the point of view; the activity includes some text to be read, a picture of the text page, and a diagram. The information is appropriately spaced on the page to be attractive without being distracting. The graphics in the practice book are appropriately spaced and attractive and appealing to students. A phonics page has students choose the correct spelling for each picture. The clipart pictures are clear and precise, without too much detail.
In Unit 5, the student Reading/Writing Companion has them discuss the context of a picture printed on the page. It is a large full-page color photograph of two girls selling lemonade for a playground fundraiser. At the top corner of the page, there is a call-out box with a familiar title—“Talk About It”—and the “Essential Question” underneath. The graphics within the box include a graphic of two students talking and a large question mark. This is a consistent graphic to showcase the Essential Question throughout the Reading/Writing Companion and on the picture cards used during read-alouds or class discussions. On the following page, students are asked to write about what makes a good citizen, and there is a familiar graphic with the word collaborate underneath; this lets students know that they will be able to do a partner discussion before recording things in their workbooks. These fonts and graphics are used consistently throughout the student workbook.
In Unit 6, the Reading/Writing Companion supports students as they work through the writing process to complete a research report. Each page of the supplemental resource is devoted to a different stage in the writing process; the pages include graphics that are appealing to students but also provide a lot of room for students to write and jot down their thinking. Sidebar boxes are provided in inviting colors in order to get students’ attention, but they are not too distracting. The font size and color help students to see the information clearly and are grade appropriate; checklists are also provided in various colors in order to stand out to students.
The materials’ student-facing edition contains four main parts: “My Binder,” “Collaborate,” “Resources”, and “School to Home.” My Binder shows students assigned to-do lists, work, and tests. Students can collaborate via discussion boards and for projects with other students in the class as assigned by teachers. Resources for students include “My Books,” texts available as eBooks, “Skills Practice,” games, graphic organizers, and other ancillary materials to support student learning. Students can listen to the eBooks and mark up text, including highlighting and taking notes, as well as participate in digital mini-lessons and watch “Collaborative Conversation” videos that model skills for students. The School to Home tab can feature letters from teachers, practice activities for parents/guardians to work on with their child that connects to the learning done in class, and other messages. Students can access each section of their home page using the icons at the bottom; this way, even young children who are developing readers can navigate the technology components in the materials.
Read the Full Report for Technology
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Read the Full Report for Professional Learning Opportunities
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Read the Full Report for Additional Language Supports
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