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The quality review is the result of extensive evidence gathering and analysis by Texas educators of how well instructional materials satisfy the criteria for quality in the subject-specific rubric. Follow the links below to view the scores and read the evidence used to determine quality.
Section 1. Spanish Language Arts and Reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) and English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) Alignment
TEKS Student %
TEKS Teacher %
ELPS Student %
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Section 2. Texts
Section 3. Literacy Practices and Text Interactions
Section 4. Developing and Sustaining Foundational Literacy Skills
Section 5. Progress Monitoring
Section 6. Supports for All Learners
Section 7. Implementation
Section 8. Bilingual Program Model Considerations
Section 9. Additional Information
|Grade||TEKS Student %||TEKS Teacher %||ELPS Student %||ELPS Teacher %|
The materials provide some texts that are well crafted and of publishable quality. Texts represent the quality of content, language, and writing that is produced by experts in various disciplines; texts include content that is engaging to K-1-2 students. Materials provide some support of increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and multicultural diverse texts, but this support is limited.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The materials provide literacy and informational texts in which students have opportunities to read independently, share reading, listen to the story, and write a response. Students’ reading and writing books open in PDF format and are found in each unit under the “Resources” tab. Materials in “Mi libro de lectura y escritura” include a variety of literacy resources: “Libros electrónicos,” “Libros por nivel,” “Lecturas adicionales para el estudiante,” and “Multimedia,” among others. Each unit provides texts that are well crafted, content-rich, and engaging. For example, “Lecturas adicionales para el estudiante” provide “lecturas diferenciadas de géneros literarios,” short passages, and Time for Kids articles.
The materials’ texts span different genres: realistic fiction, fiction, expository text, fables, fantasy, poetry, narrative nonfiction, biography, persuasive text, and drama/myths. Leveled readers are differentiated by reading level and color-coded for easy access: “Approaching level,” orange; “On level,” green; “Beyond level,” blue.
Texts represent the quality of content, language, and writing that is produced by experts in various disciplines. Under Libros electrónicos, “Antología de literatura” includes realistic fiction: Acuarelas by Vivian Mansour and El olor del mar by Ricardo Alcantara; expository text: “Al rescate” and “Amigos del frío y el calor”; narrative nonfiction: Biblioburro by Jeanette Winter; biography: “George Washington Carver”; poetry: “Burrito” by Elsa Bornemann; and drama/myth: Atenea y Poseidon by Pamela Walker.
Texts engage students in social studies and support them in expanding their knowledge. In Unit 2, the realistic fiction book Un desfile tradicional exposes students to different ethnic groups and cultures. Students learn about a family in Brazil and their cultural celebrations. Also in Unit 4, the text “Feliz Año Nuevo” guides students to learn about Chinese culture and New Year celebration. Students compare the Chinese New Year and the New Year in the United States.
The Multimedia resource provides a variety of interactive stories and songs that are engaging and appeal to second grade students. Examples include “Bate, bate,” “Caballito Blanco,” “Canción del ABC,” and “Cucu cantaba la rana.” Some examples of the interactive stories are “Agua limpia,” “Bosques,” “El león y el ratón,” “Cena en casa de Alejandro,” “Colorea tu comunidad,” “El zorro y la cigüeña,” and “Equipos en el espacio.” The materials also provide “Nuestras maravillas,” where students learn vocabulary and important facts from cultures around the world.
The materials scaffold learning and challenge students throughout the year. The first units provide stories for shared reading that include high-frequency words as vocabulary and short sentences. The middle and end units include richer and more complex vocabulary; texts are longer and require deeper understanding. Rich vocabulary and language appropriate to the discipline are present in the materials and provides enrichment opportunities. In Unit 4, Terremotos, there is an extension for Beyond level readers. Students create a public service flyer and explain to people how to prepare for a tsunami; they write at least two sentences and explain what a tsunami is and what it can do.
Some of the material appeals to students’ interests, but this is limited. There is evidence to support different cultures and backgrounds within texts. Stories represent characters of different races, ages, and genders, but there is no evidence of reference to people with disabilities. In Unit 5, students read the biography “Cesar Chavez” and learn about the challenges and inequality immigrants had to overcome.
Within the texts, there is some evidence of traditional, contemporary, and multicultural diverse texts; however, examples are limited. For example, in the narrative nonfiction text Biblioburro, students read a Colombian story about a man who travels by donkey and reads to children. Then, in the realistic fiction text Acuarelas, students learn about a girl who wants to find the meaning and origin of her name. The character’s dad is from Senegal, and her mom is from Mexico. Also, the expository text “De aquí y de allá” explains how families are different from one another and do different things.
No example of classical literature is evident.
The materials include a variety of text types and genres across content that meet the requirements of the SLAR TEKS for each grade level. The platform provides opportunities for students to recognize the characteristics and structures of literary, informational, and persuasive texts. Science and social studies topics are connected within informational and persuasive texts. Additional materials allow students to analyze the use of print and graphic features as well as recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Texts included in the materials are rich in content and are used to teach characters, cause and effect, setting, and plot (problem/solution). The “Literature Anthology” found in every unit provides a variety of texts that address description, comparing and contrasting, and sequence structures. Unit 1 provides the realistic fiction text “La otra orilla” by Marta Carrasco and the expository text “De aquí y de allá” to introduce compare and contrast. Students read the texts, discuss how the stories are similar and different, and make connections. The materials include literary and informational texts that provide opportunities for students to recognize the characteristics and structures of stories.
In Unit 2, “El león y el ratón” introduces the fable, characters, settings, and plot. Activities facilitate instruction on the characteristics and structures of literary and informational texts. Students learn about the differences between narrative, expository, poetry, and other varieties of texts. Examples of informational and literary texts include “Locura por el dinero” and “El rey Midas y el toque dorado.” Informational and persuasive texts included in this unit connect to science and incorporate scientific context, vocabulary, and illustrations. The texts “Águilas y aguiluchos,” “Osos bebés,” “De oruga a mariposa,” and the interactive read-aloud cards “Familias de animales salvajes” support science topics and teach the relationship between animal parents and their offspring. Unit 3 integrates science text through the use of realistic fiction stories such as “Un viaje estelar,” which guides students to make a connection to things we see in the sky. The material supports the science TEKS “Record and organize data using pictures, numbers, and words (Science TEKS 2.2[D])” and “Observe, describe, and record patterns of objects in the sky, including the appearance of the Moon (Science TEKS 2.8[C]).”
Materials provide teacher guidance and support: A variety of informational texts include pictures, captions, bold print, and diagrams. Examples of texts include “Las familias trabajan juntas,” “¿Por qué trabajamos?” “Amigos del frío y el calor,” “Osos bebés,” and “De oruga a mariposa.” The Unit 4 informational text “El mar” contains diagrams, bold letters, and subheadings to aid in instruction. Students can also easily access poems through online components. The teacher assigns poems (e.g., “Nubes,” “Poemas,” “Conversacion”) for students to read and manipulate the text by highlighting, underlining words, and clicking bold words to access their meanings.
Units 5 and 6 both include informational and persuasive texts that connect to social studies topics and support historical figures. Examples include “El dilema de las bolsas de plástico,” “Hagamos compost,” “Una lección de mi abuela,” and the leveled reader ¿Son necesarias las reglas? In addition, the interactive read-aloud cards “Todas las ciudades necesitan reglas” serve as an example and provide students the opportunity to read and write about the importance and need for rules.
Materials also include the genre of biography and stories that support historical figures; these incorporate an assortment of print and graphic features that support students in analyzing concepts. The informational texts “Cesar Chavez” and “Me llamo Celia” use headings, bold words, sidebars, pictures, captions, and labeled diagrams. The text “Me caigo” persuades students to perform an action. Unit 6 includes different versions of traditional and classic stories, such as “La Cenicienta,” “La Cigarra y las hormigas,” and “El Rey Midas y el toque dorado.” Activities with teacher guidance include scavenger hunts for text and graphic features. “La vida de un billete de dólar” and Cómo ser un comprador inteligente allow students to participate in a text scavenger hunt using Manz’s “THIEVES.” “My Book of Reading and Writing” includes the biography “George Washington Carver” and the digital format text “Amelia Earhart.” In addition, “Reading Wonders” provides a text on John Muir, and the Time for Kids magazine contains an informational text about “Los símbolos Nacionales.” Unit 6 also incorporates texts about Rudy Garcia-Tolson and Molly Brown; there is a table of contents, index, and glossary.
Students have opportunities to recognize the characteristics of multimodal and digital texts. There are a variety of genres, including realistic fiction, fiction, expository text, fables, fantasy, poetry, narrative nonfiction, biography, persuasive text, drama/myth, and folktales. Unit 5 provides the drama En busca del lago mágico; Unit 6 includes the fable “El vecino de oro,” the folktale “El Rey Midas y el toque dorado,” and the poems “Viaje divertido” and “Buen viaje.” A majority of the persuasive texts require students to analyze why the author wrote the story, but materials include few opportunities for readers to distinguish fact from opinion. Students do distinguish fact from opinion in “Una lección de mi abuela,” for example.
The resources are engaging and incorporate material that students can identify with. Audio, interactive stories, and songs include “Bate, bate,” “Caballito blanco,” “Canción del ABC,” and “Cucu cantaba la rana.” The“Multimedia” resources offers the following texts: “Agua limpia,” “Bosques,” “El león y el ratón,” “Cena en casa de Alejandro,” “Colorea tu comunidad,” “El zorro y la cigüeña,” and “Equipos en el espacio.” The text “Las reglas son necesarias” can also be read as an audio story. “Libros electrónicos / Antología de Literatura” contain well-crafted and content-rich materials. Examples include realistic fiction: Acuarelas by Vivian Mansour and El olor del mar by Ricardo Alcantara; expository text: “Al rescate” and “Amigos del frío y el calor”; narrative nonfiction: Biblioburro by Jeanette Winter; biography: “George Washington Carver”; poetry: “Burrito” by Elsa Bornemann; and drama/myth: Atenea y Poseidon by Pamela Walker. The digital-based Time for Kids allows students to explore online features while the teacher reads aloud. Students’ “Mi libro de lectura y escritura” is also available in a digital form and provides students access to manipulate text and respond.
The materials include a variety of texts that are appropriately challenging, incorporate appropriate levels of complexity, and support students at their grade level. Texts and series of texts are connected and include read-alouds and shared readings. The publisher also provides a text complexity analysis. Texts are at the appropriate quantitative levels and have appropriate qualitative features for the grade level. Read-aloud and shared reading texts are above the complexity level of what students can read independently.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Materials include texts, series of texts connected to them, read-alouds, and shared reading; not all of these are accompanied by a text complexity analysis. Resources for teachers include a “Text Complexity” study by Dr. Timothy Shanahan, which provides teachers with references for analysis and evidence-based best practices. Resources also include videos with teacher guidance on the following: understanding genre, organization, purpose, and sentence structure in informational texts as well as understanding organization, prior knowledge, and specific vocabulary in literature.
Each unit contains a preview of materials to be used for each week; it includes the genre, the title of the text, the Lexile level, the TEKS to cover, and expected student outcomes. Resources also provide analysis and supportive material that is useful for lesson planning. The video “Prior Knowledge in Informational Text” offers step-by-step guidance on how to help students comprehend complex informational text that requires specific prior knowledge. The narrator in the video suggests having students first consider the discipline of material and how the text is written and should be read. Next, the teacher focuses on key domain-specific vocabulary and identifies misconceptions that students may have about the topic. Lastly, the teacher reads and assesses the text ahead of time using the “Access Complex Text” (ACT) prompts in the “Teacher’s Edition.”
The “Instructional Routines Handbook” includes routines, research-based strategies, and tips for teachers to support close reading, interactive read-alouds, shared reading, small group and guided reading, and independent reading and fluency. The read-alouds, shared readings, and leveled readers have Lexile levels appropriate to the grade level. As the year progresses and students master each reading level, texts grow in Lexile level complexity. Examples of materials in Unit 2 include expository texts, such as “Águilas y aguiluchos” (Lexile level 520L); “Osos bebés” (Lexile level 550L); and “De oruga a mariposa” (Lexile level 460L). All leveled readers also provide the Lexile level as “Approaching,” “On Level,” or “Beyond Level.” Materials include leveled readers with paired reads such as Familia de Animales (Approaching, Lexile level 400L; On Level, Lexile level 480L; Beyond, Lexile level 600L).
Texts also include a variety of genres such as poetry, drama, and realistic fiction that challenge and scaffold student learning as the year progresses. Unit 2 provides expository texts with lower Lexile levels; by Unit 6, expository texts are at higher Lexile levels and contain more complex sentence structures. ACT prompts guide the teacher on how to support students’ access to complex texts. However, it is important to note that materials do not include rationale explaining the educational purpose and grade-level placement of the texts.
Read-aloud and shared reading texts also challenge readers; materials provide a close reading routine that includes DOK levels of instruction. For example, in Unit 2, the expository text “Aguilas y Aguiluchos” requires students to comprehend complex text and understand sentence structure. This text includes text features such as the heading “Hora de hacer el nido,” a diagram with labels, and photos and captions. Students also need to identify the main topic and details and take notes as they read and retell.
Units 5 and 6 include texts that incorporate appropriate layouts. Activities support attracting students’ attention and building on their background knowledge and ideas. For example, after reading the text “César Chávez” in Unit 5, in the “Escritura e investigación” section, students make a poster or handout about a hero. The realistic fiction story “El equipo de papá” in the “Búsqueda e investigación” section suggests that students create a recycling table and present it. In addition, in Unit 6, the expository text “Como hacer un presupuesto en semanas” includes complexity, vocabulary, text features, and content matter. Students read the text and analyze its content when answering questions. Materials include quantitative measures. The “Recursos de Maestro” directs teachers to use the “Data Dashboard” in order to filter by class, group, or individual student data to guide group placement decisions. Materials provide explanations for how to use the texts and rationales. Materials support outcomes for students that include making inferences, identifying the problem and solution, and researching. Teachers can also use “Ayuda para comprender textos complejos” for guidance in structuring learning and new material. Lesson plans and pacing guides provide additional support for teachers on what topics and skills to cover, how much time to devote, what sequence to teach, how to introduce texts, and series of questions
The materials incorporate a variety of questions and tasks that support students in synthesizing knowledge and ideas to deepen understanding and identify and explain topics and themes. Questions and tasks build conceptual knowledge, are text-dependent, and prompt students to synthesize new information. Various formal and informal assignments focus on texts students are reading or listening to and require close attention to the meaning and inferences as students demonstrate comprehension. Questions and activities grow and support students’ understanding of topics and literacy skills. Students have several opportunities to evaluate and discuss information from multiple places within a text as well as make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The materials include questions that are well-crafted, lead to new insights, generate discussion, and promote comprehensive exploration. For example, Unit 1’s shared reading “Un desfile tradicional” includes questions and tasks that build conceptual knowledge, are text-dependent, and prompt students to synthesize new information. Some questions that accompany the reading are “¿Porque el autor escribe palabras en portugués en el cuento?” and “¿Cuál es el suceso más importante del día?”
In Unit 2, students evaluate and discuss information from multiple places within a text. Texts include a variety of genres (e.g., expository texts, fables, poems). The poem “La tortuguita” allows students to look for evidence, analyze vocabulary, and learn about poetry terms like rhythm and rhyme. “Mi libro de lectura y escritura” includes support for students to make connections and answer questions that relate to their personal experiences. Materials also allow students to make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society. For example, the text “Familias de animales salvajes” contains a series of questions supporting the growth of students’ understanding of topics and literacy skills.
In Unit 3, materials generate discussion and promote comprehensive exploration. For example, materials include guidance for using the “Close Reading Routine,” “Essential Questions,” making predictions, using text features, and think-alouds. For the text “¡Ellos tienen ritmo!” students answer questions that require them to apply text evidence, such as “What word in the first sentence helps us to understand the meaning of the word chorus?” and “What is a chorus?” Questions and tasks require students to read carefully, reread to provide examples, classify items, summarize information, and draw inferences. For example, students work in partners, summarize texts orally, write summaries in writer’s notebooks, and complete digital recordings of summaries. If a text is too difficult to understand, teachers refer to the “Access Complex Text” prompts for additional support.
Moreover, Unit 3 includes questions and tasks that strategically sequence and support students’ analysis and knowledge. The texts “Iluminando vidas” and Biblioburro contain questions to ask before, during, and after reading and align to the Essential Question “How can people help out their community?” Questions cover a range of topics and literacy skills, including understanding to gain information, discussing the author’s purpose for writing text, recognizing characteristics and structures of informational text, making inferences, and using evidence to support understanding.
In Unit 4, students evaluate and discuss information from multiple places within a text. Questions and tasks require readers to produce evidence from texts, explore realistic fiction, and apply new knowledge and skills encompassing the four domains of language. The story “Lom y los nudones” requires readers to pay close attention to meaning and to use inference to demonstrate comprehension. Activities in texts support the strategy of visualization and help students understand problems in the stories. Students make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society. The text “¡Feliz año nuevo!” offers students the opportunity to compare and describe how celebrations in the United States are different from Chinese New Year. Students explore how other children around the world have different customs specific to their culture.
In Unit 5, teachers ask questions that help students build their knowledge. With the nonfiction text “Cesar Chavez,” a series of questions allows students to analyze the story, look for text features like bold print and timelines, use text evidence, and understand the author’s purpose. Questions include “What text features help you understand more about his life?” and “What is the prompt asking?” With the biography text “Me llamo Celia Cruz,” students learn about the hero, timelines, and social studies concepts. In various formal and informal assignments, teachers ask questions about making connections and finding evidence. For example, students work in partners, use text evidence to complete sentence starters, and research and paraphrase information. In one example of guided practice, students research a hero. The activity scaffolds student learning by guiding students to find the information needed to share a presentation. Students brainstorm questions to guide their research, create a research plan, and design a hero poster using a foldable.
Students also evaluate and discuss information from multiple places within a text. Unit 6 materials integrate social studies and support the TEKS “Explain the choices people in the U.S. free enterprise system can make about earning, spending, and saving money and where to live and work. Social Studies TEKS 2.9(B).” Students read texts about money and learn about the uses of money. Examples of texts include “La vida de un billete de un dólar,” “Locura por el dinero,” the leveled reader Cómo ser un comprador inteligente, and the digital passage “Dolares y centavos.” Materials guide teachers with the Essential Question and encourage students to cite text evidence when making text-to-self and text-to-world connections.
The materials contain a variety of questions and tasks that require students to evaluate the language, key ideas, details, craft, and structure of individual texts. The materials include questions and tasks to support students’ analysis of the literary/textual elements of texts. Students analyze, make inferences, and draw conclusions about the author’s purpose in cultural, historical, contemporary contexts and provide evidence from the text to support their understanding. The materials provide students the opportunity to compare and contrast the stated or implied purposes of different authors’ writing on the same topic, analyze the author's choices, and how they influence and communicate meaning. Additionally, materials prompt students to make, correct, or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with and without adult assistance; students study the language within texts to support their understanding.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
In Units 1 and 2, questions and tasks support students’ analysis of the literary and textual elements. In Unit 1, Week 1, during the whole group shared reading of Un desfile tradicional, students answer questions regarding the author’s purpose. Teachers ask, “¿Porque el autor escribe palabras en portugués en el cuento?” and “¿Cómo se siente Maria acerca de ir a la práctica al final del cuento?” In their answers, students infer about cultural contexts, understand text, and draw conclusions. Unit 2 offers similar tasks and questions for students. For example, in Week 2, during the whole group read-aloud of “Osos Bebes,” students make predictions using text features. Teachers ask, “¿Cómo los ayuda la autora a comprender las familias de osos usando las fotos y las leyendas?” To support students in analyzing the author’s purpose, the shared reading “La Cigarra y las hormigas” includes the questions “¿Qué piensa la cigarra sobre las hormigas?” “¿Por qué crees que incluye esta información el autor?” “¿Qué mensaje quiere compartir el autor en esta fábula?”
In Units 3 and 4, questions and tasks foster textual analysis, are meaningful in class discussions, and require students to explicitly reference evidence in text. During a lesson, the teacher reads the fifth paragraph of the realistic fiction text “Viaje estelar” to model the strategy of rereading to find information. After the think-aloud, students discuss how the author shows the characters’ excitement. To guide students to analyze the author’s craft and make inferences, teachers ask, in Spanish, “Which of these meanings is correct?” and “How do you know?” The text “Del día a la noche” also offers questions and tasks that require students to identify and support the author’s purpose. The teacher rereads the first paragraph and asks the students (in Spanish) “How does the author begin the text?” and “Why do you think the author begins the text this way?” Students take turns answering the questions. In Unit 4, questions ask students to study specific language within texts. For example, in Week 5, during whole group time, the teacher reads aloud the free-verse poem “Nubes,” which incorporates the use of antonyms. During a think-aloud, the teacher explains how antonyms help readers visualize when reading. Materials guide the teacher to support students’ comprehension of the text, academic vocabulary, and sentence structures. To check for understanding, teachers ask (in Spanish), “Do the lines end with rhyming words?” “Do they tell the poet’s thoughts or feelings about a topic?” “Are there examples of descriptive or figurative language?” Students reread poems “Nubes” and “Poema” with partners and share their ideas.
In Unit 5, materials provide teacher guidance to develop students’ understanding of the author’s purpose and summarizing events. For example, during a shared reading, the teacher reads aloud the nonfiction text “César Chávez” in a whole group setting. Teachers ask, in Spanish, “When did César tell workers to stop working?” “Why do you think the author wrote the biography?” “What is the author’s point of view about César Chávez?” “How does the author show César is a hero?” “What happened when the landowners started losing money?” After reading, students work in partners to summarize the text orally. Students then write summaries in their writing notebooks and include main ideas and key details. Teachers have multiple opportunities to develop students’ vocabulary. For instance, the same text incorporates synonyms such as cosecha and recolección
The materials include a cohesive, year-long plan for students to interact with and build academic vocabulary in and across texts. Materials contain a variety of ways to apply words in appropriate contexts. Additionally, the materials include scaffolds and supports for teachers to differentiate vocabulary development for all learners.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Materials in Units 1 and 2 introduce vocabulary through various means and provide similar routines for each unit. To introduce concepts and vocabulary words for texts, the teacher uses “Oral Vocabulary Words” throughout all units and follows the “Define/Example/Ask” routine found on the print or digital “Visual Vocabulary Cards.” These serve as tools and assist students in a year-long plan to build academic vocabulary.
In Unit 1, the materials build and support academic vocabulary development. After a shared reading, students work in partners, reread text, and use new words to talk and write about the text. Another example includes differentiation of vocabulary words within texts. For example, the text Un desfile tradicional in Week 1, Day 1, contains highlighted vocabulary words. After the teacher completes the shared reading in the whole group, students work on vocabulary activities in their “Student Edition” book and practice making connections to the vocabulary words. Additionally, materials guide the teacher to use interactive reading picture cards and gestures to support student comprehension. For example, to clarify the meaning of tímida, nerviosa, and preocupada, the teacher models a gesture for each word and checks for understanding. To assess students’ progress, the teacher uses the “Evaluacion del progreso.” Students also have the option to complete an online “self-assessment” in order to track progress and note areas that need improvement; however, no evidence was found for differentiated vocabulary instruction.
Unit 2 also offers opportunities for students to learn and practice new vocabulary words. For instance, in Week 3, Day 1, the teacher completes a shared reading of “La cigarra y las hormigas” in a whole group setting. Afterwards, students record “interesting words” in the Student Edition book. Students use and build word walls when using new vocabulary and high-frequency words; however, the unit does not include “Tier 2” words, word lists in different contexts, or evidence that the students can use the words all year long.
Unit 3 provides teacher guidance on selecting words to teach and word meanings; students have opportunities to actively learn, practice, apply, and transfer words into new contexts. For example, in Week 6, Day 1, the teacher engages students in vocabulary exercises during a small group differentiated lesson by using the leveled reader Terremotos. The teacher uses the Visual Vocabulary Cards and routine to review specific words such as eje, magnitud, placa, sismografo, and tsunami and models how to use the glossary to determine their meanings. In addition, to scaffold and introduce words, the teacher uses Visual Vocabulary Cards to display and model how to spell and read. The “Teachers’ Guide” includes support for “Spelling Words,” “Oral Vocabulary Acquisition,” “Vocabulary Acquisition,” and “Vocabulary Strategy.” Weekly games, repetitive activities, and rich routines hold students accountable and provide opportunities for an ongoing review of words. For instance, to support vocabulary development, the teacher reviews the meaning of words, and students use the words to form sentences; students then work in partners and act out the words. Materials also offer opportunities to assess and determine students’ comprehension of vocabulary. For example, the “Materiales del aula estrategias” offers evaluations that consist of multiple-choice or fill-in-the-blank questions.
In Unit 5, scaffolds and supports allow teachers to differentiate vocabulary development and instruction for all learners. Differentiated spelling lists are evident and are based on reading levels. “Oral Vocabulary Cards” provide teacher support to introduce words and teach word meanings; they include examples that relate to texts and other contexts. For instance, in Week 3, Day 1, the teacher reads aloud “Un problema multicolor” to support an oral language lesson in a whole group setting. Before reading, the teacher introduces the words entusiasmados, exhausto, ofrecer, preocupación, and tartar and uses the Define/Example/Ask routine. The teacher prompts students to discuss and use words. Lessons and texts also support cross-content vocabulary development and allow students to read and write about the responsibilities of good citizens.
Unit 6 introduces vocabulary in various ways. Resources include differentiated spelling lists and offer guidance to use words in context. For example, to introduce words, the teacher uses the Define/Example/Ask routine, which prompts students to use words and discuss how people use money. Materials incorporate opportunities for students to learn, practice, apply, and transfer words into familiar and new contexts. Students can also build their own word lists: First, students choose a word from a text. Then, students work in partners and use text clues to find the meaning. Finally, for additional support, students use a dictionary to find the meaning.
The materials include plans to support and hold students accountable as they engage in self-sustained reading. Procedures and protocols, along with adequate support for teachers, foster independent reading. Additionally, materials offer plans for students to self-select texts and read independently for a sustained time. There is limited planning and accountability for achieving independent reading goals.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Unit 1 includes support to foster and engage students in self-sustained reading. The “Instructional Routines Handbook” suggests specific routines for teachers to follow and incorporate in the classroom. There are routines and guidance regarding students selecting books, reading during independent reading time, and using reading skills and strategies. The Handbook contains guidance on grouping students, supporting guided reading groups, conferring with individual students, using the “Five Finger Rule” chart, and incorporating “book talks.” Materials also guide the teacher to encourage independent reading time in the classroom and include support for small group differentiation and instruction. Students choose a fantasy book to read silently. The teacher encourages students to set a purpose for reading, record key details from the book, and visualize difficult sections of the text. Students then use a graphic organizer to record what they learn. Another example encourages students to keep a reading journal and write summaries. Students read, record, discuss, and compare books they read. The “Teacher’s Resource Book” includes printable reading response pages, which students use to respond to their independent reading.
In Unit 3, materials provide a variety of genres and stories for reading; they suggest setting a specific time for independent reading. For example, “Self-Selected Reading,” “Additional Readings to Extend and Explore” encourages students to share book resources and use the online “Unit Bibliography.” Students select books, read independently for 30–40 minutes, and respond in their writer’s notebooks. Students also have opportunities to interact with texts while reading with the teacher or independently. “Libros electronicos” contain questions for discussions as students listen to or read stories. For example, after reading the story “Locura por el Dinero,” the section “Propósito del autor” includes questions such as “¿Porque crees que David incluyó este gráfico en su libro?” and “¿En qué forma te ayuda a entender lo que David quiere enseñar sobre el dinero?” Materials also offer suggestions for students to share their reading. In the section “Hacer Conexiones,” after reading “El Ratón y el león,” students discuss and share summaries of the story in pairs. “Las lecturas adicionales” allow opportunities for student to self-select their reading and also contain lists of approved books such as “Independent Reading Focus,” “Classroom Library,” “More Leveled Readers,” and “Bibliography and Reading Across Genres”; however, there is no teacher guidance to hold students accountable for independent reading or promote reading at home for a minimum of 20 minutes.
Materials in Unit 4 include opportunities for students to interact with texts while reading alongside the teacher or independently. Libros electronicos contain questions for discussions as students listen to or read stories. Las lecturas adicionales and “Lecturas diferenciadas de géneros literarios” allow students to self-select and share their reading. For example, after reading Aventuras en el lago, students use text evidence and respond to an “Essential Question.” However, materials do not support students in reading at home.
The materials in Unit 5 contain adequate support for teachers and guidance to foster independent reading. The unit includes school-to-home resources, such as letters to families describing the focus of the week, strategies to practice at home, and learning goals. The teacher introduces the letter and explains the focus for the upcoming two weeks, the genre, and the topic (heroes). Students take the letter home for support and share it with their family; however, there is no evidence to support reading at home. Teachers use texts for read-alouds, shared reading, and independent reading and provide support for students’ reading levels. There are plans for students to self-select texts and read independently for a sustained period of time; materials include planning and accountability for achieving independent reading goals. The Instructional Routines Handbook suggests specific routines for teachers to incorporate independent reading and hold students accountable. For instance, students choose books to read for 30–40 minutes and respond in their writer’s notebooks. “Activity Cards” provide specific opportunities for students to read and share, collaborate in groups, and work in centers.
Unit 6 incorporates a variety of genres that meet the TEKS for specific grade levels and contain stories to capture students’ attention and encourage lifelong reading habits. The unit supports the genre of drama/myth and includes a variety of texts (e.g., “La reina de las flores” in the “Interactive Read Aloud Cards,” “El origen de la quinua” in the “Reading/Writing Companion,” “La competencia entre Atenea y Poseidón” and “Una planta de calabaza” in the “Literature Anthology”). In addition, materials include “Leveled Readers with Paired Reads,” “Decodable Readers,” and “Genre Passages.” Resources guide the teacher to designate a specific time for independent reading and set classroom and individual goals. To support this, students use a reading and time log and create a reading wish list.
Materials provide support for students to compose across text types and include various opportunities for students to write literary texts for a variety of purposes and audiences. Activities allow students to dictate or write poetry using poetry elements as well as to write personal narratives to convey their thoughts and feelings about an experience. There are also opportunities for students to write informational texts, write procedural texts, dictate or write reports about a topic, and practice correspondence to write thank-you notes and letters.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
In Unit 1, materials support the elements of the writing process and allow students to dictate and write reports on personal narratives. Students write personal narratives to convey thoughts and feelings about an experience. For example, the teacher guides students to use “Mi libro de lectura y escritura” to write a realistic fiction narrative about a family. The teacher explains the purpose; students create a plan and collaborate in pairs. Materials support writing organization and the story sequence: Students prepare a draft, and the teacher guides students to include specific details. Students use the multimedia article “Cómo llegar allí” for supporting evidence and collaborate with each other to peer review, edit, and revise. Students publish and present their final work.
Unit 2 also supports the elements of the writing process and allows students to dictate and write reports on a variety of topics. Students write informational texts and poetry and convey thoughts and feelings about experiences. For instance, after reading the text “Cómo crece un animal bebe,” students use a graphic organizer to draft ideas and explain the sequence of events. The teacher provides support and guides students to review through a series of questions. Students complete drafts, revise, edit, write, publish, and present. The multimedia resource “Diseñar una presentación” also provides support for students to help each other present work. Students have opportunities to write poetry and use poetry elements for multiple purposes and audiences. For example, students use details from their previous writing about animals to write a poem with rhyming words. The teacher instructs students on poetry elements to include in the poem.
Unit 3 provides teacher support to help students grow their composition skills; there are opportunities to write literary texts for multiple purposes and audiences. Students write or dictate to convey thoughts and feelings about personal experiences. For example, prompts guide students to plan and draft an essay in independent writing, such as “¿Qué instrumento elegirían para expresarse? ¿Por qué?” “¿Cómo se expresan las personas al escribir o tocar música?” “¿Alguna vez han usado tecnología para expresarse? Explíquenlo”. The materials also provide guidance and lessons to expand students’ vocabulary. For instance, the teacher displays previously learned vocabulary words (despejado, encender, funcionar, ganas, hamaca, iluminar, pensativo, pila), and students use sentence stems to orally complete and review words. Students then work in pairs to ask and answer questions about the words. To connect lessons to writing, students use their writer’s notebooks to write sentences and use the vocabulary words.
In Unit 4, students write literary texts, such as poetry, for multiple purposes and audiences. In a lesson on free verse poetry, the teacher explains the features of poetry, reviews the features in the “Reading/Writing Companion,” and uses the text “Lluvia” for support. Students write their own free verse poem about the weather or seasons and use sensory words and descriptions. To begin, the teacher creates an anchor chart and reviews the literary elements of poetry. Students list poetry features and brainstorm ideas. The teacher explains that observing the weather and writing about it generates ideas for poetry writing. The teacher encourages students to think about types of weather and how it looks, sounds, and feels. Students use a brainstorm box, add sensory words, and continue with the writing process. Finally, students identify the audience and write a draft.
In Unit 4, students also have the opportunity to write a thank you letter. The teacher explains the purpose of a thank you letter, "una carta de agradecimiento es un modo de agradecer a un amigo o familiar que hizo algo especial." The teacher guides students through the parts of a letter: "Encabezado: fecha y dirección de quien escribe, Saludo: un saludo como querido o querida que incluye el nombre del destinatario de la carta, Cuerpo: el texto principal de la carta, escrito en párrafos, Despedida y firma: una frase de conclusión o cierre, seguida de la firma de quien escribe la carta". Students review examples of a "Thank You Letter" and then have the opportunity to write their own letter.
In Unit 5, students have opportunities to grow their writing and composition skills as well as to write literary texts, such as informational writings, biographies, and correspondence for multiple purposes and audiences. After reading “Me llamo Celia,” students write a biography about a person that they think is a hero. The teacher invites students to volunteer and summarize other biographies they have read. The teacher reminds students that biographies share information about important events in people’s lives. Students write their biographies. The teacher guides students to make a list of primary and secondary sources to use for the biography activity. Students have the option to interview a national or historical figure, a living and local person, or family and community members. They can search interviews, speeches, and letters as primary sources and articles or books as secondary sources. To gather information, students use a graphic organizer and search for news articles about the person and their accomplishments.
Materials engage students in the writing process to develop text in oral, pictorial, or written form and facilitate students’ coherent use of the elements of the writing process (planning, drafting, revising, editing, and sharing/publishing) to compose text. Activities guide students to utilize drawing and brainstorming to generate drafts and prompt students to organize drafts based on ideas and details.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
In Unit 1, students engage in the writing process. Materials incorporate themes that require students to plan and brainstorm. The focus of this unit is on writing realistic fiction. The teacher uses the text “La otra orilla” to guide students in drawing and generating ideas for their realistic fiction writing. First, the teacher explains to students that “ficción realista [es] para entretener y enseñar a los lectores sobre personas y sucesos.” The teacher also reminds students “pueden pensar en las personas que conocen y las experiencias que tuvieron para obtener ideas para su cuento.” Students then plan and organize their drafts by brainstorming ideas and details. They use “Mi libro de lectura y escritura” to complete their writing.
Unit 2 also engages students in the writing process and grows their composition skills. For example, students explore writing expository text. First, the teacher explains that expository texts are a type of writing that should be interesting. The teacher asks students “pensar en maneras de presentar la información en formas que sean interesantes para los lectores.” Students then plan and organize drafts by brainstorming ideas and details. They use Mi libro de lectura y escritura to complete their writing.
In Unit 3, materials facilitate students’ coherent use of the elements for the writing process; these are introduced in a systematic way over the course of the year. The “Teacher’s Guide” and “Instructional Routines Handbook” provide explicit instructions for teachers and include a variety of opportunities to engage students in writing expository texts and grow their composition skills. For example, one activity focuses on students writing expository texts; students draw, brainstorm, generate drafts, plan, and organize drafts by speaking, drawing, or writing. To begin, the teacher uses the texts “¡Ellos tienen ritmo!” and “Diferentes maneras de disfrutar de la música” and explains that students are to use ideas and details from the texts to research and write an expository essay. Students recall other texts they have read and share facts about a topic they found interesting. The teacher then reviews the features of an expository essay (it includes facts, details, and information to inform readers about a topic). Next, students brainstorm to choose a favorite kind of music or instrument to write about. Students use the “Reading/Writing Companion” to draw and write their ideas. They research, make a plan, write a draft, revise, and edit. Finally, they write final drafts, publish, present, and evaluate.
In Unit 5, students have opportunities to discuss topics before writing. For example, after reading a text on César Chávez’s life, the teacher guides students to discuss “how the author includes bold print to show words that connect to key details.” The teacher uses a think bubble to think aloud; it says, “This was mostly about….” Students begin to plan and organize their drafts by brainstorming ideas and details. Students find evidence and details to support the idea that Chávez is a hero; the teacher explains how text features help them understand key events in his life. Students work in partners and use text evidence to complete their writing. If a student experiences difficulties or struggles to start writing, materials include sentence starter boxes for additional support, such as “Cesar Chavez es un héroe porque….” These appear in the “Acuérdate Box” in the Reading/Writing Companion. Students use sentence starters to guide their responses.
Over the course of the year, materials provide opportunities for students to apply grade-level standard Spanish conventions to their writing. Materials also include opportunities for the practice and application of the conventions of academic language when speaking and writing, including punctuation and grammar. Grammar, punctuation, and usage are also taught systematically, both in and out of context.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Materials include opportunities for students to apply grade-level standard Spanish conventions to their writing throughout the year. Unit 1 focuses on different types of sentences; students practice and apply subjects, predicates, and coordinate conjunctions in sentences. Materials also provide teacher guidance to support students’ developing skills in composition. For example, as a part of independent writing activity, students create a text about realistic fiction. Students follow the writing procedure and apply learning to their writing as they brainstorm, plan, draft, edit, and publish their writing. Students work in pairs as they complete activities that relate to the concept or skill. The materials offer explicit instruction in Spanish conventions and prompt the teacher to explain that “todas las oraciones deben tener un sujeto.” As the lesson begins, materials state: “Explique qué y es una conjunción coordinante que permite unir oraciones.”
Unit 4 provides explicit instruction in Spanish conventions and includes practice and applications for students to use academic language and apply punctuation and grammar to their writing. For instance, to review the capitalization of proper nouns, the teacher begins the lesson by explaining that the first letter of a proper noun always begins with a capital letter. The teacher displays the sentence “Kevin vive en California” and points out the words with capital letters. The teacher explains that “Kevin” is capitalized because, aside from being the first word of the sentence, it is also a proper noun. In a whole group lesson, the teacher uses the text “La historia de un caballo” to teach capitalization. The teacher first explains to students the importance of capitalizing the first word of titles, such as in books, movies, songs, and plays. The teacher demonstrates capitalizing the first word and writes the title “La historia de un caballo.” Next, the teacher continues writing the rest of the words in lowercase and reminds students that only proper names are capitalized. As guided practice, the teacher prompts students to practice writing their favorite titles. Students work independently, and practice capitalizing only the first word and proper names and underlining all the words. Students also practice and apply proper nouns and past tense forms of regular verbs in their writing. For example, the unit includes a lesson on regular verbs ending in -er or -ir. During whole group, the teacher explains that past tense verbs are used to talk about events that occur in the past. The teacher also clarifies that regular verbs are those whose roots do not change and points out that the past tense of regular verbs ending in -er or -ir is formed by adding endings to the root of the verb. Next, the teacher models and writes on board the past tense forms for the verb comer: “yo comí, tú comiste, él/ella comió, nosotros/nosotras comimos, ustedes comieron, ellos/ellas comieron.” Then, volunteers practice conjugating past tense forms of dormir, volver, and salir. In addition, to support students in revising their writing, the “Instructional Routines Handbook” resource includes the checklists “Lista de comprobación para la edición” and “Lista de comprobación de escritura.”
Unit 5 provides specific grammar instruction on adjectives and how to use them. In a whole group lesson, materials direct the teacher to explain “that a qualifying adjective is a word that expresses the traits of something or someone, so it is used to describe a noun.” The teacher then displays and reads aloud a sentence that includes the adjective limpios and explains, “Qualifying adjectives must match gender and number with nouns.” During guided practice, students write sentences and underline adjectives and nouns. To check for understanding, the teacher asks students to tell the gender and number of the adjective. Materials offer support for students to practice and use correct grammar in their writing. Review and practice activities in the online “Grammar Handbook” require students to capitalize proper nouns and use dialogue dashes; there is also a grammar chart.
Unit 6 provides guidance for explicit grammar instruction. This unit includes a lesson on adjectives and guides the teacher to provide daily instruction and set time for students to apply their learning. Materials instruct: “Remind children that an adjective is a word that describes a noun, and that a noun names a person, place, or thing.” Teachers explain: “To compare characteristics of two people, places or things, we use the structures más + adjective + que; menos + adjective + que; and tan + adjective + como.” The teacher provides the example sentence “Juan es más alto que Pedro.” As guided practice, students discuss and identify the adjectives and nouns. Afterwards, students practice independently and apply their learning by writing the sentences “Mi casa es...la casa de Ana.” “El libro es...la película.” and “Susana es...su hermanito.”
The materials include practice and instruction for students to write legibly in cursive (Grade 2) in the appropriate grades. The materials include sufficient practice to meet the requirement of the TEKS, though they do not offer plans for procedures or support for teachers to assess students’ handwriting development.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
In Unit 3, the materials offer instructional support, guidance, and diverse opportunities for students to practice their calligraphy in cursive. For example, resources offer a variety of different practice books, including “Cuaderno de caligrafía,” “Cuaderno de práctica,” “Cuaderno de práctica versión interactiva,” and “Destrezas fundamentales.” There are also activity cards to use for learning centers. Teachers model and form the letter Jj. First, as guided practice, the teacher guides students: “Begin at the bottom line and curve up to the middle line. Slant down through the bottom line. Loop left, cross over just below the bottom line, and curve up to the middle line. Lift. Place a dot above the letter.” After the teacher models, students practice tracing and writing in cursive in the Cuaderno de practica. Resources provide teachers with year-long guidance for assessing, measuring, and supporting students’ handwriting development.
In Unit 4, the materials provide direct instruction and intervention strategies. For instance, they prompt: “Correct children’s pen grip and paper placement. Have children name each letter as they write.” The teacher points out that “uppercase B and D are not joined to the next letter.” During small groups, the teacher models how to trace cursive, and students practice. There is no evidence that teachers track handwriting development. However, under the “Evaluaciones la unidad,” materials provide resources to assess a student’s overall progress at the end of each unit, focusing only on the TEKS that the unit covers. Some of the questions also require students to write the answer.
In Unit 5, materials provide guidance and include instruction in cursive handwriting. Students have opportunities to practice the letters N, Ñ, M, H, K, P, Q, V, U, W, X, Y, and Z as a set. To introduce a set of letters, the teacher models letter formation. The teacher says, for instance, “Comiencen en la línea de arriba y curven a la derecha. Bajen. Vuelven a subir y curven a la derecha….” Students then have guided practice in a whole group setting. Throughout the week, students use the Cuaderno de practica for independent practice. There is a plan for procedures and support for teachers to assess students’ handwriting development. For instance, the “Caligrafia” book includes practice activities, tests, unit exams, and support for handwriting intervention strategies such as how to hold a pencil. The tests and exams assess calligraphy, while activities offer opportunities for students to use and apply cursive calligraphy in different types of writing.
The materials support students’ listening and speaking about texts and provide opportunities for students to listen actively and ask questions to understand information. All materials provide consistent opportunities for students to engage in discussions that require them to share information and ideas about the topics they are discussing.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
In Unit 1, students have opportunities to listen actively, ask questions to understand information, and respond to information and topics presented in texts. Activities support active listening. For instance, students read the expository text “¡Trabajo de familia!” Then, in whole group, the teacher reads the first paragraph and models using text evidence to answer a question. The teacher thinks aloud: “A question usually begins with who, what, when, where, why, or how, and it ends with a question mark… Who did you learn about in this paragraph? The answer to this question is Hanna, Mom, Dad, and Zac.” Students then work in pairs, ask questions, and share answers about the way the two family members work together. There are also collaborative activities that allow students to engage in “productive talk.” For instance, using the same text, the teacher asks leading questions to allow students to show what they understand about a concept. During whole group, the teacher points out that the text is organized by family members and introduces the topic of needs and wants. The teacher explains how the text begins with the parents’ jobs and then discusses how children help at home. The teacher continues to explain how parents work at jobs outside the home, earn money for the family, and use the money earned to provide for the needs and wants of the family. Next, student volunteers explain the difference between needs and wants. Student pairs discuss whether needs or wants are more important. The teacher checks for understanding and encourages students to see that needs are more important and must be met in order to survive. In another example, partners work together and use a photograph and a diagram to identify the different stages of a butterfly’s life. Teachers ask, “How can you locate the information on the diagram that you need?” Students discuss, respond, and write answers in their “Reading/Writing Companion.”
In Unit 3, students respond to text and share information through collaborative activities and conversations. Materials include open-ended questions, such as “Why are Luis, Alfa, and Beto going to El Tormento?” Students discuss the text they read, use the text to find answers, and share responses. The teacher models how to have a discussion, and student pairs work “to identify another clue to help them determine the author’s purpose.” In another example, students actively listen and complete an activity with a partner. They generate and make sentences with verbs in the past, present, and future tense. Then, they change the sentences so that they use a different tense.
In Unit 4, students consistently engage in discussions and share information and ideas to support the topics they read about and listen to. For example, students work in pairs and discuss what they read. Partners reread and discuss why the term rompeolas is important. They also discuss how the author helps readers understand that sea walls are important to communities. Then, students share their ideas with the class.
In Unit 5, there are various opportunities for students to listen actively and participate in discussions. For example, in a “Listening Comprehension” section, students learn about the characteristics of the biography genre. The teacher reads a text, uses a comprehension strategy, models a think-aloud, and allows for classroom discussions. Materials instruct: “Pida a los niños que mencionen otros textos que hayan leído que sean biografías.” Students also share information and ideas about topics and use evidence to support discussion. For example, in “Enfoque en el lenguaje,” the teacher reads “Una heroína sobre esquís” and uses flashcards/phrases to create comprehension questions. After reading the text, students look for evidence to answer the following questions: “Diana tomó clases especiales. ¿Cuándo pudo [ella] volver a esquiar?” Lessons in the unit continue to use the Listening Comprehension process, incorporating different topics and texts, such as the realistic fiction text “Un problema multicolor” and the persuasive text “Las reglas de la ciudad.”
In Unit 6, students have some opportunities to share information and ideas about different topics and listen actively. They also use evidence to support discussions. The Listening Comprehension section includes similar lessons as in Unit 5, but there are limited opportunities for students to listen actively. For example, materials direct the teacher only to read “a los niños el texto en voz alta.” Though materials encourage the teacher to model think-alouds throughout the unit, it is only as an indication to the teacher rather than to provide support for the students. Teachers also do not ask specific questions for understanding information, and students do not engage in many discussions to share information and ideas about topics. Instead, there is only an opportunity for students to retell “La reina de las flores” in their own words. Other sections in the unit include a variety of resources. Through shared reading and a series of questions, students are able to analyze the content of a story. Students use “Mi libro de lectura y escritura” and look for the answers. The “Anchor Text” allows students to read the story independently, not with the teacher. Materials have minimal support for students to engage in appropriate speaking and listening work.
The materials engage students in collaborative discussions. Students have consistent opportunities to engage in discussion and practice grade-appropriate speaking skills using standard Spanish language conventions. Materials offer opportunities for students to develop social communication skills that are appropriate to their grade level.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
In Unit 1, students consistently engage in discussion and practice grade-appropriate speaking skills using standard Spanish language conventions. In each unit, there is guidance focusing on language as well as explicit instructions and prompts. One lesson incorporates movement to support language development and vocabulary. The teacher reads “Muy lejos, tan cerca” and introduces the word se deslizó. The teacher explains how some animals don’t have legs and have to move in another way. Teacher says, “Deslizarse es una manera de moverse por el suelo que usan las serpientes, las víboras y otros animales que no tienen patas.” Then, students mimic the movements snakes and crocodiles make. The teacher asks, “¿Es parecido o diferente al movimiento que hacen las serpientes?” and explains (in Spanish) the meaning of the word reptar. Student pairs discuss “¿Qué otros reptiles conocen?” In another lesson, students work with partners to find other examples of fantasy from the text “Muy lejos, tan cerca.” The teacher prompts the discussion with questions such as “What do the penguins in the story do that real penguins cannot do?” and “Can animals be friends with each other?” Students share their ideas with the class.
In Unit 2, students engage in partner, small group, and whole group discussions. Materials provide protocols to practice speaking and listening as well as teacher support and guidance for implementing collaborative discussions. For example, students explore the fable “La liebre y la tortuga” and practice speaking and answering in small groups. In this lesson, the teacher first models how to use the graphic organizer to generate lessons that the animals in the fable might teach. The teacher then asks, “¿Qué fábulas de animales conocen?” “¿Qué lecciones les enseñan?” and “¿Qué aprenden de cada historia sobre ustedes y sobre otros?” Students work in small groups to develop ideas and discuss what they know about the fable, the tortoise, and the hare. As they work, the teacher encourages students to add as many lessons as possible from the fable. The materials include opportunities for students to develop social communication skills that are appropriate to their grade level. For instance, during collaborative discussions, materials guide the teacher to encourage students to focus, stay on topic, share information and ideas that build on the ideas of others, and speak clearly in complete sentences. Resources such as the “Instructional Routine Handbook” also provide clear and specific guidance for collaborative conversations in Spanish. The “Activity Cards” support learning centers and allow students to engage in reading, speaking, and listening.
Materials in Units 3 and 4 follow the same format as the other units. During the week, students discuss topics they learn about in “Collaborative Conversations.” Activities engage students in partner, small group, and whole group discussions. Teachers encourage students to stay on topic, build on the ideas of others, and connect their personal experiences to the conversation. In a Unit 4 lesson, students pairs discuss the topic of the week and answer the questions “¿De qué manera un río puede cambiar la superficie de la Tierra lentamente?” and “¿De qué manera puede cambiarla rápidamente?” In another lesson, students perform a “Reader’s Theater” and work in groups. The teacher splits the class into two groups and assigns the parts of the news anchor and news reporter to more than one student. Students talk about the setting and the characters, rehearse, and perform. Students also have an opportunity to respond to the text they read using text evidence. In one lesson, student pairs discuss why erosion becomes a problem. They reread the sections “La erosión de las playas” and “La erosión de las rocas.” Then, in partners, students reread and discuss other sections of “El mar” of their choice. The teacher asks students to reread one section and tell about new insights they gained from rereading.
In Unit 5, students have consistent opportunities to listen actively and participate in discussions. Opportunities contain protocols for students to practice speaking and listening. For example, teachers encourage students to “mantener el foco en el tema de conversación,” “contribuir a las ideas de los demás,” and “usar a mayor cantidad posible de palabras del organizador en la conversación.” Teachers also remind students to speak in a clear and concise manner, use complete sentences, speak at an appropriate pace, and not answer questions with one word. Many lessons require students to work in pairs, share ideas, debate, or discuss ideas within the whole group. The materials provide opportunities for students to develop social communication skills through collaborative discussions and activities. In one lesson, students work in small groups and talk about their rights and responsibilities as members of their school. Another lesson follows the same format but focuses on the topic of heroes within the community; students connect reading, speaking, and listening. After reading, students use notes, work in pairs, and orally summarize the text. Materials include questions that are text-dependent and require students to include key details and analyze and synthesize information. For instance, after reading “Cesar Chavez,” to further support student response and discussions, the teacher asks, “¿Porque piensan que el autor escribió la biografía?” “¿Cuál es el punto de vista del autor sobre Cesar Chavez?”
Unit 6 also provides consistent opportunities for students to listen actively and participate in discussion as well as conversational prompts for teachers. For example, in one lesson, students work in partners and debate a topic. Materials instruct: “Pida a los niños que trabajen en parejas para debatir sobre cómo identificar la información en la gráfica.” As students work, the teacher asks, “¿Qué estructura de texto usa el autor para organizar la información?” “¿Por qué el autor incluye la presentación de imágenes?” Students share responses with their partners.
The materials engage students in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for different purposes. They support instruction for students to ask and generate general questions for inquiry with adult assistance and to generate and follow a research plan.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
At the end of Units 1 and 2, materials suggest research topics; students generate questions and participate in research activities. In Unit 1, the focus is on study skills, and research topics include “Different foods in the world” and “Interviews.” In Unit 2, topics are “Life cycles,” “Food chains,” and “Animals.” Research topics are often presented by the second day of the week and also appear in the “Reading/Writing Companion.” Teachers guide students in generating quality questions to carry out their research. To begin the interviewing activity in Unit 1, the teacher first guides students to complete the research steps, which include choosing a partner or person to investigate, writing the questions, conducting the interview, writing the answers, and deciding how to present the final work. Next, the teacher tells students (in Spanish), “It is important to prepare a list of questions before you do an interview.” The teacher then explains how to find information, models how to use keywords, and provides guided practice. As an example, the teacher models how to interview a librarian and ask questions about their work: “¿Cómo mantiene ordenado los libros?” “¿Cómo decide qué materiales nuevos comprar?” The teacher also reviews the question words: quien, que, donde, cuando, cómo, and por qué. Afterward, students work independently, ask questions, plan, and present their work. Teachers guide students in generating quality questions. For instance, the “Support” section for “Spanish Learners” offers instructional support for teachers to guide students when working in pairs. In Unit 1, to encourage students to help their partners plan their posters for the research lesson, teachers use the sentence frames “¿Cual es nuestro tema?” “Conozco el...de…. Piensen en otros países.” “¿Es igual el pan de Perú?” To gather relevant information, students use a variety of sources such as print or digital books, encyclopedias, websites, newspapers, and magazines. The “Teacher’s Resource” also offers a unit on bibliography and websites for additional support.
In Unit 4, students generate and follow a research plan with adult assistance. Materials also include explicit instruction in research skills that directly align with the unit. For example, students research changes on Earth and make drawings to show a sequence of those changes. First, the teacher explains that students will be working on the project over the next two weeks. The teacher shares the online guide with the five steps of the research process with the class. The teacher reviews before-and-after photos from the Reading/Writing Companion and calls on students to volunteer and use clue words to describe what the photos show. Students suggest ways to show the correct order of events without using words that signal sequence. Students work in partners to create a drawing that shows events that change the Earth. Lastly, the teacher asks students to discuss the changes, and students explore how to show the sequence of changes in the correct order. The teacher reminds students to accompany their drawing with a brief description of the changes and their causes.
In Units 5 and 6, students generate questions on a topic; materials provide explicit instruction in research skills through “Research/Inquiry” activities. For example, in Unit 5, the teacher explicitly guides students on researching the roles of a mayor, a governor, and the president. Students write questions about what they want to know about each job and work with a partner or in a small group to find information. To guide discussion and stimulate their writing, the teacher offers the sentence starter “Un...hace muchas cosas, entre ellas….” In Unit 6, students research a plant. They generate questions (in Spanish), such as “Why did you choose this plant for your diagram?” “Do bees and butterflies like this plant?” “What soil is best for this plant?” After brainstorming possible questions, students research to find answers.
The materials contain interconnected tasks that build student knowledge. Questions and tasks are designed so that students build and apply knowledge and skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, thinking, and language. Tasks integrate reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking; include components of vocabulary, comprehension, and syntax; and provide opportunities for increased independence.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Unit 1 offers questions and tasks that are designed for students to build and apply knowledge and skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, thinking, and language. In one activity, the teacher guides a whole group discussion about different holidays. The teacher asks the students the “Essential Question” (in Spanish) “How are families around the world the same and different?” In groups or partners, students discuss other holidays their families celebrate or that they know about. To incorporate writing, students complete a graphic organizer in their “Reading/Writing Companion” and compare how some holidays are alike and different. Then, students share what they wrote. Small groups also integrate tasks to support language, reading, and writing. For example, the class previews the text La banda de música. Then, students make predictions in their small group and read the text. Finally, students write about the text. Materials provide opportunities for students to integrate multiple literacy skills while reading a variety of texts. For instance, before reading the anchor text “Las familias trabajan juntas,” students discuss what they see in the pictures and how families help each other. During the reading, students fill out a graphic organizer and write down details about how families help each other. After reading aloud the text in the whole group, the teacher encourages students to reread independently and then discuss with a partner what connections they can make to the text.
In Unit 2, interconnected tasks build student knowledge. For instance, in one activity, before reading, the class discusses the topic for the week. The teacher introduces the concept “What do we love about animals?” and the learning objective “animals in poems.” Students read, look at the pictures in the Reading/Writing Companion, and discuss them. To support language and speaking, the materials provide vocabulary for the students to use for support, such as comunicar, expresar, comportarse, and sensorial. Students work with a partner and discuss what they see in a picture. Afterward, students use a graphic organizer in the Reading/Writing Companion to write sensory words to describe a dolphin.
Unit 3 supports the concept of reading and guides students to study different topics through a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts, including “Iluminando vidas,” Biblioburro, “Caer bien parado”, “Viaje estelar”, “Una visita al cielo,” and Música con residuos. Students read different books from the “Leveled Reader Database” to learn about a variety of characters, settings, and events. They also have opportunities to work collaboratively in small groups or with others to generate new products, such a picture history book or a celebration table. A variety of tasks integrate reading and writing. For instance, in Week 1, during a whole group lesson on comprehension strategy, students use their responses from the Reading/Writing Companion to cite text evidence and support their answers. To support reading and language, students first read the text “Iluminando vidas” and answer questions that build and apply knowledge skills. After reading, students work in pairs with the think-aloud “I ask myself ‘What is solar power?’” and share their answers with the rest of the class. This activity also includes opportunities for students to discuss key vocabulary and learn about synonyms, like with the word aldeas. For example, after the shared reading, the teacher points to the word and asks the students, “Which word in the paragraph has almost the same meaning as the word aldeas?” Students use text evidence to respond. Other tasks that support speaking include partner, small group, and whole group discussions. For instance, to support comprehension, students use a graphic organizer in small groups to record a sequence of events. In this task, students share their answers, what they reread, and how it helps them understand the story. Materials also incorporate “Vocabulario Oral,” which prompts students to use the words as they discuss things they see in the sky. Lessons explicitly include opportunities for students to write and listen.
In Unit 4, students have a chance to work collaboratively. For instance, students work with others to generate new products like a table about a celebration. During a small group activity, the teacher guides students to “esperar que la otra persona termine de hablar para hablar ellos.” To support reading and language skills, resources such as “Studysync Blast,” the interactive text “Mi nueva escuela,” and the shared reading “Feliz año nuevo” include questions for students to build comprehension and apply knowledge. There are also daily objectives; students work with them through the “Objetivos de aprendizaje” checklist. In addition, to support writing, students use “Mi libro de lectura y escritura.” To support speaking, students work in pairs and use flash cards to answer questions like “¿Cuales son las diferencias entre los niños del mundo?”
In Unit 5, questions and tasks allow students to build and apply knowledge and skills in reading, writing, speaking, listening, thinking, and language. For example, persuasive shared reading texts allow students to establish a purpose for reading; self-select texts; and generate questions before, during, and after reading. For example, before students read, the teacher encourages them to think about the “Essential Question” “¿Por qué son importantes las reglas?” Students think about what they know about rules and why rules are important, and then set a purpose for reading. As they read, students list interesting words and identify key details from the text to answer their questions. The teacher asks, “Why does the author include headings with the words argumento and contraargumento?” “What is the issue the author presents?” “What does this chart show?” and “What are the reasons for banning plastic bags?” Students then work in partners to discuss which opinion they support and give their reasons. Afterward, students summarize the text orally using their notes, and then write a summary in their writer’s notebook. The teacher reminds students to include important details and use their own words. Students digitally record presentations of their summaries.
Unit 6 provides tasks that integrate reading, writing, speaking, listening, and thinking; include components of vocabulary, and comprehension; and provide opportunities for increased independence. For example, students learn about poetry through shared reading. The teacher provides guidance in a whole group setting; students evaluate details and determine key ideas. For instance, to support reading, language, and comprehension, students reread the poems “Acuarela,” “Sé de un pintor atrevido,” and “Tu amigo” to learn more about how poets write poems. The teacher asks, “What is the poet’s message about the pencil?” and “What does the poet invite the reader to do?” Students use text evidence to support their answers. In addition, to support language and speaking, students respond to reading. The teacher prompts: “How does each poet show his or her point of view about imagination?” “What is the prompt asking?” Students work in pairs and share answers. To support writing, the teacher reads aloud sentence starters in the Reading/Writing Companion. Partners use the sentence starters to focus on each poet’s way of revealing their point of view on imagination.
The materials provide spiraling and scaffolded practice and support distributed practice over the course of the year. Designs also include scaffolds for students to demonstrate integration of literacy skills that spiral over the school year.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Unit 1 covers standards that repeat throughout the year to ensure mastery. Materials have the same format throughout the units and grade levels. For example, students read “La otra orilla.” Students answer questions about the author’s craft; retell the beginning, middle, and end; and synthesize information. Students have opportunities to review skills, like “Visualize,” which repeats from kindergarten material. “Research and Inquiry” activities also build in rigor. For example, in Weeks 1 and 2, students research digitally to write a final response synthesizing the knowledge they built about different foods around the world and how they are similar and different. Students work in partners to make a poster to present. Then, students ask questions about each other’s presentations and debate. For additional support, materials include sentence starters to help students with their presentations. In Week 5, students complete another Research and Inquiry activity, where they conduct interviews about a certain subject. First, the teacher explains to students (in Spanish) that “one way to find out information from knowledgeable family, friends, and community members is by conducting an interview.” Then, students work with a partner and generate questions about a person’s job. Students have two weeks to work on the project, learn how to contact the person they want to interview, and conduct the interview. Afterward, students present the information to the class.
In Unit 2, students continue practicing skills they acquire from other units and throughout the year. For example, in a “Paired Read” activity, the class reads the poem “¿Qué es el gato? ¿Qué es el tigre?” Then, students compare how tigers and cats are alike and different. Students work in pairs, discuss what connections they made to the text, and record what they discuss in their “Reading/Writing Companion.”
Tasks in Unit 3 include a sequence of standards that repeat across the course of the year. Standard 3.D (“identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, and homographs in context”) repeats 14 times throughout the material. Standard 2.10.A (“discuss the author’s purpose for writing text”) repeats 18 times; a variety of resources reinforce skills. For example, both small group and whole group activities incorporate texts such as “Ayudar a la comunidad,” Comunidades urbanas, Biblioburro, “Caer bien parado,” “Del dia a la noche,” “Un museo musical,” and “Aterrizaje del Águila” to support Standard 10.A. Materials include activities that align vertically and horizontally and provide support to practice skills and concepts across all language domains. For instance, students have opportunities to practice vocabulary through “Shared Reading” and then “Words in Context.” The use of transition activities also provides opportunities for students to review skills and concepts, such as with Standard 1.D, (“work collaboratively with others following agreed rules for discussion.”) In several grammar activities, students learn to use infinitives and verb tenses; they practice conjugating verbs and grammar skills individually, collaboratively in partners, and through resources such as “Expand Vocabulary” and online activities. Another transition activity occurs during “Spelling” where students practice dictating words, and teachers evaluate their previous knowledge. In this activity, pairs share work from the “Practice Notebook.” There are scaffolds and options to support students. In a “Vocabulary” activity, the teacher first scaffolds the instruction and explains the concept of synonyms. Then, the teacher models how to use synonyms and does guided practice.
Materials support distributed practice over the course of the year. For example, under “Resources,” the materials provide the scope and sequence of all units; TEKS spiral in as review. The materials are well organized, follow the same pattern across units, and provide a variety of resources to reinforce skills.
Unit 5 incorporates realistic fiction texts, as do previous units. In a whole group setting, the teacher discusses the features of realistic fiction, displays the “Realistic Fiction” anchor chart, and asks students to add characteristics of the genre. The teacher points out that understanding the story structure helps students comprehend realistic fiction because knowing who is telling the story is important. The teacher reads aloud “Un problema multicolor” and previews the comprehension strategy “Make and Confirm Predictions.” Students then use their own words and retell the text in a way that maintains logical order.
In Unit 6, scaffolds allow students to demonstrate understanding of literacy skills that spiral over the school year. Questions and tasks build in academic rigor to meet the full intent of the standards in each grade level. Materials in this unit incorporate expository texts, as do previous units. For instance, students read “La vida de un billete de un dólar.” In a whole group setting, the teacher reads the subheading and asks, “What will this section be about?” The teacher then thinks aloud and prompts students to find another fact about how bills are printed, in the caption below the photograph. After reading, students work in partners to summarize the text orally, use their notes, and write in their writer’s notebooks. The teacher reminds students to include only important ideas and to use their own words. Students then digitally record presentations of their summaries.
The materials include a research-based sequence of grade-level foundational skills instruction and opportunities for ample student practice to achieve grade-level mastery. Materials systematically develop knowledge of grade-level phonics patterns as addressed in the SLAR TEKS for grades K-2 and provide opportunities for students to apply grade-level phonetic knowledge to connected texts. Additionally, materials include building spelling knowledge as identified in the SLAR TEKS.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The materials offer a scope and sequence along with progress monitoring tools to track student progress as well as a research-based sequence of grade-level foundational skills. At the beginning of each unit, a “Phonics Skills Trace” chart demonstrates the letters and sounds the students are working on this week and in the following weeks. The materials list specific syllables and letters with which students work. In Unit 1, Week 1, students work with letters z, c, /s/, /k/, s, b, v, q, k, ch, h, r, rr, j, g, /g/, /j/, and the dieresis. “Word Work” lessons are divided into “Phonological and Phonemic Awareness,” “Phonics,” “High-Frequency Words,” “Spelling,” and “Vocabulary” (“Guided Instructional Routines”) and include teacher guidance on how to teach each skill. In Week 1, to teach z, c, /s/, the teacher models with the “Phonics Cards” and explains the difference in words that have both letters and sounds. Students complete guided practice and then practice forming syllables with z, c, /s/. Instructions also recommend the teacher use the “Language Transfer Guide” for support. As a continuation of the lesson the next day, students use the “Word Cards” to form words with the syllables studied, and instruction progresses to finally recognizing words and sentences with z, c, /s/. The materials provide opportunities for students to read high-frequency words in and out of context. In Week 1, students read high-frequency words when the teacher shows them cards. The students “Read, Write, and Spell” each word and then practice using the words in sentences with a partner.
Unit 2 material aids students in building spelling knowledge. In Weeks 1 and 2, during phonics lessons, the teacher guides the whole group to form words using the “sound spelling cards.” First, the teacher models making the syllables ta and za and then joins syllables together to make the word taza. Students build the word cerdo with teacher guidance. After, students write the sentence “La cena esta servida.” In Weeks 3 and 4, the teacher explains and models the use of the dieresis in syllables güe and güi. The teacher writes down the words cigüeña and pingüino and underlines the ü. Students write güe and güi and say the sounds the syllables make. Lastly, students build the syllables using the “Word-Building Cards.” In Week 5, students spend five minutes reading and building high-frequency words through the “Read, Spell, Write” routine. The teacher shows the word algún; students then read the word, spell the word, and write the word in the air as they say each letter. Students apply their phonetic knowledge as they read decodable readers during differentiated small group time.
Materials in Units 3 and 4 offer systematic, explicit instruction of grade-level phonics patterns and provide opportunities to hear, say, encode, and reach each newly taught phonic/spelling pattern through direct instruction from the teacher, checks for understanding, and activities. In Unit 3, Week 1, students complete a phonics lesson based on “Activity Phonetic Practice.” To decode multisyllabic words, the teacher provides guided practice and reads a list of words with ll. During the phonics Word Work lesson, the teacher reads the following words: costilla, llegar, sillón, bello, lluvia, caballo, llave, valle, rodilla, pollo, avellana, ella, cuello, bolsillo, and gallo. The materials provide a research-based high-frequency words list through “Expand Vocabulary,” “Connect to Words,” “Family of Words,” “Reinforce the Words,” and “Connect to Writing” activities. In Unit 4, the materials offer opportunities for students to build spelling knowledge.
Materials in Unit 5 provide research-based high-frequency word lists for students to practice and develop automaticity and fluency. The same words are used during spelling when applicable to the pattern being taught, connecting the transparency of the Spanish language between letters and their sounds. Additionally, materials provide “Tarjeta de palabras de uso frecuente”; “Tarjetas de fotos”; and the “Whole-Group High-Frequency Words Lessons” coach video, in which Kathy Bumgardner introduces the high-frequency words to students. Moreover, students have a variety of opportunities to read high-frequency words in and out of context. In Week 1, during a whole group Word Work lesson, the teacher displays the High-Frequency Word Cards and uses the Read, Spell, Write routine to teach each words bicicleta, bote, delicado, demás, demuestra, frase, hundió, interés, metal, and plástico. The teacher points to and says the word bicicleta. The teacher models the word and points out its spelling. Students work in pairs to write a sentence with each word and identify the high-frequency words in the sentences. The materials offer a research-based sequence of grade-level foundational skills. The “Phonics Scope and Sequence” and a “Suggested Pacing Guide” offer guidance to teach skills in the following areas: “Phonics/Spelling: Syllables with br and fr, Structural Analysis: Plural of words ending in -z and -s, High-Frequency Words: además, caminar, carro, paseo, junto, mamá, mismo, organizar, padres, supuesto, and Handwriting: W, X, Y, Z). In Week 3, the Phonics Scope and Sequence provides teacher guidance to remind students that every syllable has at least one vowel. First, the teacher displays the Word-Building Cards to build the syllables bra, bre, bri, bro, bru and fra, fre, fri, fro, fru. Next, the teacher says (in Spanish), “Now, we will build a word that begins with br and one that begins with fr” and builds the words brazo and frasco. The teacher blends the sounds to build the syllables, and students read the words chorally.
In Unit 6, materials include systematic, explicit instruction of grade-level phonics patterns. For example, in Week 5, during whole group instruction, the teacher explains the use and rules of the diaresis for güe and güi and models with the word queso, guitarra, and pingüino. In this lesson, students hear, say, encode, and reach each newly taught phonic/spelling and pattern through direct instruction from the teacher, checks for understanding, and activities. The teacher displays the words que, qui, gue, gui, güe and güi and guides students to identify the syllables. If needed, students work with a partner of a different level, and the teacher calls on students to read the words chorally. In addition, materials provide explicit teacher instructions and models to support new sounds and spelling patterns through different modalities. In Week 5, students cut apart the “Spelling Word Cards” available online and initial the back of each card. With partners, students read the words aloud to each other and then do an open sort. Students record their sorts in their writer’s notebooks.
The materials include explicit instruction in fluency, including rate, accuracy, prosody, and provide opportunities for students to practice. The materials include routines for teachers to regularly monitor and provide corrective feedback.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The materials provide 30 fiction and nonfiction texts. The “Guía de evaluación de fluidez” offers two selections every two or three weeks and specifically indicates unit assessments. The guide provides analysis of prosody, fluency passages, and explicit instruction on fluency. Each week, after each shared reading lesson, materials dedicate 10 minutes to fluency instruction. In Unit 2, Weeks 1 and 2, the teacher explains and models how the first step in fluency is to read all the words accurately and with intonation. Then, with the teacher, students read the first two paragraphs on page 3 of their “Reading/Writing Companion.” The teacher models reading “with accuracy, good intonation, and at an appropriate rate.” Next, the class echo reads, modeling the teacher’s use of intonation. After reading as a whole group, the teacher splits the class into groups, and students practice reading with intonation. The materials provide a separate component, “Evaluación de fluidez,” which includes over 30 different fluency passages for grades 2–6. The first fluency passage begins below Lexile level in case the teacher needs to test a student at such a level.
Unit 3 provides students opportunities to practice fluency, focusing on rate, accuracy, and prosody, through explicit instruction. In Week 1, to teach fluency focused on expression, the teacher points to page 3 of the book “Mi libro de lectura y escritura” and uses different techniques through oral guided reading. First, the teacher models how to read correctly with good expression and with adequate rhythm; then, students echo read. After, students work in groups, and an advanced reader reads a passage. To practice fluency, students read “Ayudar en la comunidad” through the “Lectura diferenciada de género literario.” In Week 2, during the shared read of Biblioburro, the teacher uses the strategy of phrasing, reading a sentence and pointing out where to pause. Students listen to the story actively and then echo read using the corresponding phrasing. After, students work in groups and take turns echo reading. In Week 3, students listen to the audio recording of “Un viaje estelar.” This is a fluency/intonation lesson for “Beginning” and “Intermediate” in which students are paired. “Apoyo aprendices de español” prompts students to record themselves reading one sentence several times and then compare with the original audio and adjust the intonation.
In Unit 5, the “Instructional Routines Handbook” provides step-by-step guidance on key instructional practices for evidence-based fluency. During guided practice, teachers use the strategies of echo, cloze, and choral reading to help students build fluency. Coaching videos like “Phrasing: Maria Russo” provide fluency activities to support phrasing, accuracy, intonation, and expression. Students practice reading fluently by focusing on rate, accuracy, and prosody. The materials include audio for fluency probes and for students to be able to hear appropriate reading speed, expression, and fluidity. In Weeks 3 and 4, during a whole group fluency lesson on realistic fiction, the teacher reminds students to pay attention to their phrasing when reading. The teacher reminds students that phrasing is the natural way of grouping words together and reviews how punctuation marks tell readers where to pause and group words into phrases. The teacher then reads aloud the first paragraph of “Una lección de mi abuela” in “Reading/Writing Companion” and pauses briefly at commas and periods. The teacher asks students what they noticed about where the reading paused; students follow the text as the teacher continues to read the fourth and fifth paragraphs on page 37. The teacher continues to model reading with accuracy, phrasing, and at an appropriate rate. For guided practice, students echo read with the teacher.
In Unit 6, materials include explicit instruction in fluency, including rate, accuracy, and prosody. In Weeks 5 and 6, students study the genre of poetry, and the teacher models fluency by reading smoothly, with expression, and at an appropriate speed. Students listen to audio provided by the materials. Before reading the poem “Sé de un pintor atrevido,” the teacher tells students: “Reading with expression is especially important when reading poetry aloud… use your voice to express the point of view, or feelings, of the speaker.” The teacher points out the word gigante in the second stanza and says: “I can change my voice and intonation to read this line. I can say the syllables slowly and with a deep voice to illustrate the word gigante.” Then, the teacher reads the second stanza aloud to demonstrate how to read the verse and points out that children can also change their voices to reflect important or surprising ideas. The teacher continues to model accuracy and expression to convey a sense of cheerfulness in line 2. After, students work in groups to chorally read the same lines and mimic the teacher’s accuracy, speed, volume, and tone of voice. For guided practice, students work in partners and take turns reading aloud “Tu amigo” in the Reading/Writing Companion. As students work, the teacher circulates and offers feedback, and students evaluate their own reading. The materials also provide teachers with routines and opportunities to monitor student fluency. For example, the “Placement and Diagnostic Assessment” offers guidance to monitor “Oral Reading Fluency” and includes passages on how to administer and score fluency assessments.
The materials include developmentally appropriate diagnostic tools and guidance for teachers, students, and administrators to monitor progress. A variety of diagnostic tools are developmentally appropriate; materials ensure consistent and accurate administration of diagnostic tools. Additionally, materials include tools for students to track their own progress and growth and provide diagnostic tools to measure all content and process skills for SLAR K-2, as outlined in the SLAR TEKS.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
For grade 2, the materials provide a variety of diagnostic tools, including different assessment manuals, such as the “Manual de evaluacion” (the “Assessment Manual”), “Evaluaciones del progreso de Texas” (“Texas Progress Monitoring”), “Evaluación de referencia” (“Benchmark Assessments”), and “Evaluaciones de unidad de Texas” (“Texas Unit Assessments”). Each resource includes recommendations on how to use the specific tool. For example, the Manual de evaluacion suggests teachers use TPRI, DARC, or DIBELS for beginning-, middle-, and end-of-the-year screeners. This manual also includes tools that support the teacher in gathering information in a variety of settings. The “Review or Reteach” section guides the teacher to understand student performance. Materials indicate when the teacher needs to review specific lessons. For instance, if students have difficulty with comma use from the last unit, the Manual de evaluacion prompts the teacher to proceed to the next unit, incorporate extra practice with commas into daily work, and explicitly point out comma usage in the next stories or text students read. Based on the assessment data, the material indicates when a teacher needs to reteach (when “concepts that were difficult for the whole class or for specific groups of students”). In addition, the Progress Monitoring tools suggest teachers use this as a form of progress monitoring throughout the year. The assessments are based on what the students should know and can be administered every couple of weeks.
Materials provide guidance to ensure consistent and accurate administration of diagnostic tools. The “Evaluación del nivel y diagnóstico” handbook provides clear guidance for the teacher to administer formal assessments. The handbook suggests the teacher use DIBELS or TPRI screenings for beginning-, middle- and end-of-the-year reading assessment and explains how to align them with the program. Additionally, the handbook provides an easy-to-use checklist, the “Quick Check Observations Form,” which allows the teacher to check and make notes on “phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary.” The materials include unit assessments found in the Evaluaciones de unidad tool, which lists the skills students should master with each question. This allows the teacher to be able to determine the areas in which the student may need more instruction or intervention. The Manual de evaluaciones provides tips and support on how each assessment should be administered and explains the purpose for each assessment. The manual describes the informal reading inventory as “a diagnostic assessment tool to gather information about a student’s comprehension and reading accuracy.” The manual also offers “teacher tips” at the bottom of each section for each assessment. For instance, a tip for administering the IRI is: “To administer the IRI efficiently, you should be familiar with the directions, passages, and questions.”
Unit 1 includes tools for students to track their own progress and growth. For example, in Weeks 1 and 2, materials provide a checklist for students to check off once they achieve the goals for the two weeks. Examples from the student checklist include citing text evidence and making inferences; participating in collaborative conversations; reading and writing words with z, c, and s; and reading with fluency, rhythm, expression, and intonation. The Assessment Manual includes several different types of diagnostic tools to measure all components of foundational literacy. The manual details information on all the assessments available for the teacher and lists the types of assessments (e.g., TPRI, DIBELS, DARC, phonemic awareness, letter naming and sight word fluency, phonics and decoding, reading comprehension, benchmarks). The manual also explains what each assessment measures, when to administer it, and how to adjust instruction. Other assessment tools include the “Unit Assessment,” where the grading rubric indicates which SLAR TEKS students need to master. For instance, the first Unit Assessment for Week 1 includes 15 questions, one brief reading passage, five multiple-choice comprehension questions, two multiple-choice questions to assess high-frequency words, two multiple-choice questions to assess phonological awareness, three multiple-choice questions to assess phonics, and three multiple-choice questions to assess sentence structure.
The materials include guidance for teachers and administrators to analyze and respond to data from diagnostic tools. Materials also offer guidance and direction for teachers to respond to individual students’ needs in all domains, based on measures of student progress appropriate to the developmental level. Diagnostic tools yield meaningful information for teachers to use when planning instruction and differentiation and analyzing and responding to data. Materials provide a variety of resources and teacher guidance on how to leverage different activities to respond to student data.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The materials for grade 2 include recommendations to support teachers in adjusting instruction to meet student needs and offer informal assessments for the teacher to use throughout the program. For example, in Unit 1, Week 1, during a whole group shared reading lesson, students read the text Un desfile tradicional. After reading, students discuss and answer questions with a partner. The materials guide the teacher to perform an informal assessment by answering the “Quick Check” question: “Can the student identify the beginning, middle, and end in a realistic fiction text?” If the answer is no, the teacher is to do the mini lesson from p. T112. If the answer is yes, the teacher reviews the mini lesson on p. T120 for “On Level” students; for “Beyond Level” students, the teacher extends the mini lesson on p. T126. The materials include guidance that supports the teacher in scaffolding instruction in every unit. For example, in Unit 2, Week 1, the teacher scaffolds a “Word Work” lesson during whole group instruction for students having difficulty blending sounds with h. In this lesson, the teacher first models writing and saying ha; then, students and teacher write and say together the blends for he. The materials incorporate the “I do, We do, You do” model for differentiated instruction, and students continue blending hi and hu independently.
The “Manual de evaluaciones” (“Evaluation Manual”) offers a variety of other word work activities, also referred to as “informal assessments,” which allow the teacher to evaluate student performance by observing, monitoring, and making instructional decisions. This manual guides the teacher to look at all the aspects of the assessments (e.g., “Look for corroborating evidence across the different kinds of assessments; use multiple measures”) and includes support on how to make instructional decisions to group students. For instance, the manual states that teachers need to make instructional decisions “about who to teach in groupings, what learning goals and objectives to teach, how to teach, and decisions about materials, methods, and rate of instruction.”
Materials also include guidance to support teachers in understanding the results of diagnostic tools. The Assessment Manual instructs the teacher to understand how the diagnostic tools are used and when to use them. For instance, instructions in the “Progress Monitoring Assessment” specify it is “designed to assess student mastery of featured comprehension skills and vocabulary strategies.” The tool directs the teacher on how to administer an assessment for the whole group. The teacher is guided to interpret the scores: “Add the number of items correct for a total score and examine the items correct per skill to identify weak areas.” A small “teacher tip” section offers guidance for teachers and suggestions, such as to use “the brief comprehension and vocabulary portions of the two-week assessments (Genre Studies 1 and 2) as a quick check of student understanding after the first week of instruction.” The Assessment Manual also contains useful information and guidance for both the teacher and for administrators who need to know how to use the material.
In Unit 4, materials provide a variety of resources and teacher guidance on how to leverage different activities to respond to student data. In the “Evaluación del nivel y diagnóstico,” the materials guide the teacher on how to instruct students if they do not score well in phonemic awareness. This diagnostic tool prompts the teacher to use intervention groups and implement support for about ten weeks. For example, phonemic awareness instruction states: “Intervention groups need to meet about 3–4 days a week, for 15–20 minutes….4 hours of phonemic awareness instruction are all that is needed by many students in Grades K–2.” At the end of each week, the “Teacher’s Edition” includes the section “Track Success, Progress Monitoring,” which lists TEKS students need to master in accordance with the daily work and assessments. For example, in Unit 4, Week 5, the section “Reteaching Opportunities” indicates that if the students score below 70% in comprehension, the teacher should assign specific lessons (e.g., 31–33 on “Theme” in the “Comprehension PDF”). The “Administrator Implementation Timeline” indicates how the administrator can monitor the “Data Dashboard” to “gauge implementation progress at the district, school, and class levels.” The program also recommends administrators encourage teachers to access support resources online, available under the “Professional Development” tab.
The materials include frequent, integrated formative assessment opportunities as well as routine, systematic progress monitoring opportunities. They accurately measure and track student progress. The frequency of progress monitoring is appropriate for the age and content skill.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Routine and systematic progress monitoring opportunities accurately measure and track student progress; suggested timelines for checking progress align with the scope of the materials. The “Progress Monitoring Component” guides the teacher to use the assessments after each text genre is covered. The material contains a series of assessments, each with a grading rubric at the end that indicates the complexity level of the questions and the TEKS covered in each question. This rubric also allows the teacher to monitor and record each student’s results and adjust students’ learning. In addition, at the end of each unit, materials offer both formal and informal assessments. For example, in Unit 1, Week 1, materials provide a list of different assessments; these include two formal assessments: “Character, Setting, and Events” and “Inflectional Endings.” Informal assessments include “Analytical Writing,” which students complete in the “Reading/Writing Companion” by responding to the reading; “Grammar Mechanics, Usage, and Spelling,” completed through the “Practice Book” or digital activities; “Listening, Collaborating, and Research,” which is assessed through a checklist and rubrics; and “Oral Fluency,” which is measured through a fluency assessment.
The “Manual de evaluaciones” (“Assessments Manual”) includes suggestions for tracking progress from unit testing via the monitoring chart on page 57. The manual also provides guidance for the teacher on forming small groups. The manual states: “At the beginning of the year, results of screening, diagnostic, and placement assessments will give you information on what students’ instructional needs are.” The manual provides different types of informal assessments the teacher can perform and indicates that any assignment is considered an informal assessment because it allows the teacher to observe reading behaviors. Assignments do not have to be formally graded; however, they do allow the teacher to assess what information the student knows and to identify any misconceptions. The manual recommends the teacher use “classroom observations” as informal assessments to assess if the students like to read books, or if they work well with others. The teacher can also ask questions during informal assessment to find out what types of books the student likes to read. Moreover, materials include formal progress monitoring measures to assess students at the beginning, middle, and end of the year. The separate handbook “Evaluación del nivel y diagnóstico” offers clear guidance for teachers to administer assessments that measure “first sound fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, and oral reading and retell fluency.” The handbook states: “Screening is administered to all students in the fall, mid-winter, and spring of each year, K–3.”
The material includes guidance, scaffolds, supports, and extensions that maximize student learning potential. Activities are provided for students who have not yet mastered the content as well as for students who have mastered the content. There are additional enrichment activities for all levels of learners in the material.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
At the beginning of each unit, lessons include a read-aloud, introduction of the concept, listening comprehension, phonological awareness, phonics, spelling, word study, shared reading, writing, and grammar. Each lesson allows an opportunity for students to interact with the content. Students of all levels have the opportunity to access and practice newly acquired content. Activities meet the students at their level and engage them in constant practice in different ways to demonstrate mastery.
Enrichment activities are included in each unit and provide additional support for all levels of learners. Each unit has an “Extend Your Learning” option, which provides the teacher with a set of different scaffolding activities to use during the whole group lesson. Scaffolding questions include guidance for students in answering both basic comprehension questions and higher-order-thinking questions. For example, in Unit 2, the teacher reads a text on insects and guides a research project. Students work in pairs for two weeks to record details and facts from the text they read in a graphic organizer and to create a diagram of their insect’s life cycle.
The materials also include recurring opportunities for scaffolds and supports for students who have not yet mastered the content. Each of the unit lesson plans provides guidance and differentiation strategies. The units and weeks follow the same organizational pattern. Evidence of this is visible in Unit 3, in the “Small Group Differentiated Instruction” activity. The material provides strategies for the teacher to intervene in the skills of vocabulary (which consists of reviewing vocabulary and compound words), comprehension, plot, and sequence in English and Spanish. In the same unit, another example of support is provided through “Word-Building Cards.” Activities are explicit and support phonics and word work. Students work with syllables. The teacher checks for understanding based on the students’ outcomes.
The materials provide a variety of instructional methods that appeal to a variety of learning interests and needs. Instructional approaches engage students in mastery of the content and support developmentally appropriate multimodal instructional strategies. Additionally, materials support multiple types of practices and flexible grouping and provide guidance and structures to achieve effective implementation.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The materials include a variety of instructional approaches to engage students in mastery of the content. Instructional support offers guidance in the following areas: explicit mini lessons, differentiated instruction, independent practice and writing, shared writing, differentiated workstations, research and inquiry projects, and digital activities. Units are broken up by genre and include “Interactive Read-Aloud Cards,” share reading texts, a “Literature Anthology,” leveled readers, and genre passages.
In Unit 1, the “Teacher Edition” includes guidance on scaffolding shared reading lessons. A variety of activities support “initial level” readers, “on level” readers, and “advanced level” readers. Materials offer teacher guidance in selecting appropriate items for independent work. For example, the “Word-Building Cards” offer support for modeling word work in small groups and incorporate the “I do, We do, You do” model.
Unit 2 incorporates a research activity that is hands-on and allows students to work in groups over a period of two weeks. The teacher first reviews how to identify and record sources. Students then create an accordion foldable to gather information about an insect, recording ideas and facts from sources in the graphic organizer. The teacher reviews students’ entries, and students create a diagram of their insect’s life cycle.
Unit 3 offers a variety of support for multimodal instructional strategies that are developmentally appropriate and engage students in mastery of the content. Materials use concept videos and graphic organizers and invite students to think out loud through questions and small groups. Songs include “Bate, bate, chocolate” and “Caballito blanco” and support both visual and auditory learners. “Interactive Read-Alouds” support kinesthetic and tactile learners. Teachers use “Juegos y actividades interactivos” to teach antonyms, homophones, metaphors, and idioms. The materials provide daily small group lessons for shared and guided reading and allow opportunities for oral language development. Students can also independently participate in “Estrategias de vocabulario,” “Tarjetas de vocabulario,” and “Vocabulario/Sinónimos” activities.
Unit 4 includes material to support multiple types of practices and provides guidance structures. Under the “Gramatica,” students collaborate to complete activities. For example, students work in partners and write a letter that includes a greeting, closing, and regular verbs that end in -er, or -ir and are in past tense. The teacher reminds students to use correct punctuation. The materials include activities that are hands-on and target direct instruction. After reading the text Terremotos, students make a model to show how earthquakes change the surface of the earth. Teachers can also use the Tarjetas de vocabulario to encourage participation through activities that support questioning, collaboration, and kinesthetic learning.
Activities offer direct instruction and encourage participation through questioning, collaboration, and kinesthetic learning. Unit 5 provides a realistic fiction text set for students to read, learn, and write about the rights and responsibilities of being a good citizen. The teacher presents the “Essential Question” “What do good citizens do?” Students read texts and work in groups to discuss their ideas about rights and responsibilities. The teacher models how to use the graphic organizer to generate words to describe things that good citizens do. Students contribute ideas and record them on a graphic organizer. Unit 5 includes opportunities for students to conduct research about the roles of a city mayor, state governor, and the U.S. President and present their work. A lesson on suffixes also supports student-led learning. The teacher introduces the concept of a root word and a suffix, models, and provides examples. Students use their “Reading/Writing Companion” and work with partners to complete the activity. The materials incorporate daily lessons that provide the teacher with specific opportunities for scaffolding in shared and guided reading practice and in small groups. Activities also support reading and writing in a large group. In Unit 5, students study the persuasive text genre; materials provide teacher guidance to scaffold the meaning of unfamiliar words. Material for guided reading groups includes differentiated lessons based on students’ level. Teachers use persuasive articles to teach synonyms, and students identify related words that have a similar meaning. Students then work in pairs and use their writer’s notebooks. Lessons encourage students to use online thesauruses to find synonyms and to use dictionaries to check pronunciations. Resources also allow students to participate in a variety of activities and tasks that support student-led practice, with and without direct teacher support. For example, word work, grammar, and spelling lessons are embedded in learning centers. The “Workstation Activity Cards” provide step-by-step instructions and visuals for students to work independently or in small groups. For students needing additional one-on-one support for concept acquisition, the “Intervention Online PDFs” provide reteaching opportunities.
The materials do not include support for English Learners (ELs) to meet grade-level learning expectations, and they do not include accommodations for linguistics commensurate with various levels of English language proficiency. In addition, materials do not encourage strategic use of students’ primary language to develop linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic skills in the target language.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The materials are in Spanish and are dedicated to the development of literacy skills in the Spanish language. Units 1–6 support Spanish language acquisition through the use of videos, visuals, and high-quality texts in Spanish. However, there is no evidence that the materials provide accommodations for ELs with various levels of English proficiency. Also, materials do not encourage strategic use of students’ primary language as a means to develop linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic skills in English. The goal is to develop literacy skills in the Spanish language.
The materials include a cohesive, year-long plan to build students’ concept development and consider how to vertically align instruction that builds year to year. Also, materials provide spiraled reviews and practice of knowledge and skills in all domains throughout the span of the curriculum.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Units 1 and 2 outline experiences that follow logical sequences, allow for depth and focus, and incorporate guidance to support teacher understanding of concept development. For second grade, materials provide a “Genre Focus” and “Essential Questions.” In Unit 1, the genres are realistic fiction, fantasy, and expository text. Unit 2 has expository text, fables, and poetry. Lesson plans are found at the beginning of each unit, follow a two-week cycle, and specify minutes for instructional time. In the “Teacher’s Edition,” each unit suggests specific minutes to allocate for instructional time in literacy skills. Instructional time is divided as follows: 10 minutes to introduce the concept, 10 minutes for “Oral Vocabulary/Listening Comprehension,” 10 minutes for “Shared Reading,” 10 minutes to “Make Connections,” 5 minutes for “Word Work,” and 10 minutes each for “Vocabulary,” “Grammar,” and “Spelling.” The remaining time is left for small group instruction, which does not have a specific suggested time. The “Research-Based Alignment” resource lists how materials vertically align across different levels. This tool provides teacher guidance and shows how to engage students in “repeated readings to build fluency and comprehension.” For example, in K–1, the teacher reads aloud and models how to find text evidence for comprehension. In grade 2, students reread the Shared Reading selection to build fluency. In addition, the “Reading/Writing Companion” provides mini lessons to guide students to dig deeper for meaning. In Unit 1, Weeks 1 and 2, the Reading/Writing Companion guides students to reread the text “La otra orilla.” Then, students use a graphic organizer to list text and illustration clues that allow them to infer what the characters of the story think. Materials provide spiraled review and practice of knowledge and skills in all domains throughout the materials. Students look for text evidence, think of the author’s purpose, and make connections, among other skills. For example, in Unit 1, Week 1, students read the shared read “Trabajo de familia.” During the reading, the teacher focuses on the skill “Key Details,” and students complete the activity as a whole class.
In Units 4 and 6, materials include support for efficient teacher planning throughout the “Teacher’s Edition.” Students have opportunities to spiral, review, and practice knowledge and skills throughout all domains. Resources guide students to look for text evidence, think of the author’s purpose, and make connections, among other skills. In Unit 4, Week 1, students read El olor del mar during whole group instruction. The teacher focuses on the “Visualization” skill and guides students to visualize as they read. The teacher then reviews what it means to “make inferences,” and students practice visualizing and making inferences. Materials provide guidance to support students in different ways in each lesson. Instructions are clear, explicit, and direct teachers to help students dig deeper and have a better understanding of different concepts. In Week 3, during shared reading, students “identify key details that tell what causes the cliffs to become weak.” In this lesson, students reread the expository text El mar, and the teacher asks questions like “¿De qué manera un río puede cambiar la superficie de la Tierra lentamente?” and “¿De qué manera puede cambiarla rápidamente?” Students then discuss in pairs. Moreover, materials also guide students to look for text evidence, think of the author’s purpose, and make connections, among other skills. In Unit 6, Week 1, students read “Locura por el dinero” during a whole group shared reading lesson; the focus is on the main idea and key details as well as the problem and solution. After reading, students summarize what they have read. Then, in small groups, students review their summaries again and work with a partner. Both units provide Essential Questions. In Unit 6, Week 5, the genre of focus is poetry, and the Essential Question is “¿Adónde te puede llevar la imaginación?” Students read the poem “Acuarelas” and write words they find interesting in their “Reading/Writing Companion.” The teacher discusses the meaning of stanza, rhyme, and point of view. At the end of the reading activity, students also discuss “Making Connections,” which is a concept that spirals in K–2.
The materials include implementation support for teachers and administrators and are accompanied by an SLAR TEKS-aligned scope and sequence outlining the essential knowledge and skills that are taught in the program, the order in which they are presented, and how knowledge and skills build and connect across grade levels. Materials also offer support to help teachers implement the materials as intended. Materials include resources and guidance to help administrators support teachers in implementing the materials and provide a school year’s worth of instruction with realistic pacing guidance and routines.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The scope and sequence demonstrates a clear alignment to the SLAR TEKS and aligns the sequence of instruction towards end-of-year outcomes. It shows the materials’ focus and instructional plans that support students at different levels of knowledge while also building across grade levels. Pacing guides and year-long plans showcase lessons and activities to implement throughout the full year. “Weekly Standards” allow the teacher to view the TEKS that support each skill. In each unit, the SLAR TEKS are listed on the side and provide support for teachers to design instruction. In Unit 1, the teacher uses digital tools to access the lesson plans and reading lessons. The materials contain six units of six weeks of lessons, including a “Review, Extend, and Assess” section that gives teachers an opportunity to adjust the material. The materials pay ample attention to learning goals and expected student outcomes. Learning goals include making inferences, identifying key details, response/analytical writing, and foundational skills such as word work and spelling. Both teachers and administrators are able to set a number of days for instruction through the digital component. This component allows the user to input all of the lessons in a calendar as well as to exclude days from the school calendar while still aligning with the pacing of the material. It is located in the “Teacher’s Edition” under the “Plan” tab.
Units 2 and 3 include examples of instructional strategies at the beginning of each week. In Unit 2, overview materials list the genre for the two-week study; for instance, students read expository texts. The overview also lists expected student outcomes and the standards for the week (e.g., “understanding the use of nouns and word work guidance”). The materials support teachers in understanding how to use the resources. At the beginning of each week, there is a list of materials teachers will need. The “Make Learning Visible” section lists and provides an outline of each topic that will be taught in each lesson. For instance, in Unit 3, Weeks 3 and 4, the genre study is “Realistic Fiction,” and student outcomes include “making inferences to support understanding, understanding the author’s use of sequence in the story’s plot, and identifying and using literary elements.” In the same lesson, materials show “Word Work” activities will focus on diphthongs ai, ia, ei, ie, oi, ie, and ua, ue, au, eu, ou, and uo. Different resources support teachers. For example, digital tools allow the teacher to access different graphic organizers, like thinking bubbles and sentence stems, as well as online “Word-Building Cards,” “Sound Spelling Cards,” “HFW Cards,” and “Spelling Word Cards” to support the development of foundational literacy skills. Resources and guidance help administrators support teachers in implementing the materials as intended. Under “Professional Development,” there are “Administrators Resources” such as the “Wonders Overview Video,” “Administrator Implementation Checklist,” “Texas Wonders/T-TESS Coaching Guides,” and “Introducing Wonders to Teachers and Families.” These resources have information that guides administrators in understanding appropriate learning environments, structures, and approaches that support learning for grade 2 students. This guidance identifies the programmatic differences between early and later elementary grade levels via a clearly designated section; it is supported with research. An “Administrative Walk-Through Checklist” includes guidance for evaluating and supporting the classroom environment as well as for lesson implementation. The Coaching Guides offer guidance and questions to assist administrators in providing feedback that aligns specifically to the implementation of the publisher’s materials. The “Administrator Best Practices for Implementation” video helps administrators learn how to help the teachers implement the material. This five-minute-long video helps administrators understand how the material is used, the science behind it, and how to best help the teachers.
The materials provide implementation guidance to meet variability in programmatic design and scheduling considerations as well as strategic implementation without disrupting the sequence of content that must be taught in a specific order following a developmental progression. In addition, materials are designed in a way that allows LEAs the ability to incorporate the curriculum into district, campus, and teacher programmatic design and scheduling considerations.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The materials allow LEAs the ability to incorporate the curriculum into district, campus, and teacher programmatic design and scheduling considerations. The program design can be adjusted to align with district curriculum frameworks. For example, the materials offer guidance on how to set up and adjust the calendar, the “Digital Quick Start,” which is located under the “Professional Development” section. There is a suggested daily scope and sequence for literacy lessons. Each unit and week follows the year-long scope and sequence, which contains the “Big Idea,” anchor texts, shared reading, “Leveled Readers,” “Vocabulary,” “Comprehension Skills,” “Phonological Awareness,” “Phonics/Spelling/Handwriting,” “High-Frequency Words,” “Fluency,” “Writing and Grammar,” and “Research and Inquiry.” The scope and sequence also demonstrate how phonics and spelling build as the year progresses. In Unit 1, Weeks 1–4, students review words with syllables with h, r, rr, and j. By Week 5, students progress to working with the syllables güe and güi. In Unit 2, Week 1, students review and work on the same syllables.
Lessons are designed for ample foundational literacy instruction and offer recommendations for programs with less or more time allotted to literacy basics. The materials provide a unit overview and a suggested lesson plan for each day with guidance on skills that need to be taught in small groups. “Teach It Your Way” includes resources and suggestions for implementing different components; there is a template to plan the “Mini-Lesson,” “Small Groups,” and “Independent Time” as well as suggestions for the “Daily 5,” “Workshop Reading and Writing,” and “Blended Learning Station Rotation.” Guidance supports teaching units when most appropriate. For example, the “Digital Tools” resource allows the teacher to customize lessons and use the “Weekly Planner.” The teacher sets parameters for the calendar days, and the program lists the lesson plans for the day. The teacher then receives instructional guidance to guide the lesson. For instance, if the teacher clicks on the date “August 20th” in the Weekly Planner and then clicks on the “Reading and Writing” section, materials open and instruct the teacher to teach the topic of “Realistic Fiction.”
“Learning Objectives” are arranged into six units with six weeks of instruction. For each week, the materials list the TEKS that correspond with daily lessons, the genre and text titles to be taught, and the strategies and routines that are incorporated in the lesson plans. Each week contains consistent framing elements such as “Student Outcomes,” “Composition,” “Response/Analytical Writing,” “Inquiry and Research,” and “Foundational Skills.” Materials allow for flexibility: Every six weeks, there is an integrated “Review, Extend, and Assess” section, which allows the teacher to skip or implement if needed. The digital calendar in the “Teacher’s Edition” portal allows LEAs to incorporate the curriculum into district, campus, and teacher scheduling. The digital calendar also allows administrators or teachers to set specific parameters for days of instruction. In addition, both administrators and teachers have the option to delete or move lessons for students to study later or at home.
The materials provide guidance on fostering connections between home and school and support the development of strong relationships between teachers and families. The materials also specify activities for use at home to support students’ learning and development.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Units 1 and 2 incorporate suggestions and activities for how parents can help support students’ foundational literacy skills at home. Specific at-home activities support students’ learning and development; there is online access to resources parents can use easily at home with common electronic devices. Each unit includes the “School to Home Family Newsletter,” with a list of learning goals and activities that relate to student outcomes. For instance, the Unit 1, Week 1 newsletter informs parents that for two weeks they will be working on realistic fiction, and then on fantasy in Week 3. The newsletter also offers information on what the students are learning weekly and includes suggestions, activities, and tips on how parents can help at home. To practice vocabulary, instructions guide parents to help their child define each word and take turns using each word in a sentence. For spelling, parents encourage students to review words with c and z, b and v, and ch. To practice comprehension, materials direct parents (in Spanish): “Look at the pictures and he or she will tell you what he or she sees, and then together, make up a story about each picture.” Unit 2 also includes explicit instruction and systematic and multisensory activities for parents to practice new literacy skills, such as word work, spelling, and comprehension, at home with children. For example, in a vocabulary activity, parents help children define each word, and then children take turns using each word in a sentence. In Week 6, parents support students in looking for a cooking recipe on the internet. Materials also offer connection ideas to check “Student Learning Goals” and instruct parents: “Have the child put a check next to the learning goals he or she completes.” Activities suggest and offer items that are typically available in the home and do not require parents to buy anything or have special training. Materials are reproducible and incorporate review games, flashcards, word cards, matching card games, and printable reader books or ebooks.
Units 3 and 4 support development of strong relationships between teachers and families and offer activities that help develop foundational literacy skills for parents to connect to the classroom. The family newsletter provides learning goals for the week, activities for word work, comprehension strategies, and spelling lists by reading levels for parents to provide additional support at home. There are also tips and examples of exemplary family engagement practices and resources to engage families through a powerful home-school partnership that strengthens social-emotional learning skills. Examples include enriching media, weekly hands-on learning experiences, and a “Family Time Mini-Guide” to support home viewing of the “Sesame Workshop” videos. In addition, materials in both units also offer specific at-home activities that support students’ learning and development and offer online access to resources parents can use easily at home with common electronic devices. In Unit 3, Week 5, the newsletter includes the learning goals for the week and activities for word work and comprehension strategies. To support vocabulary, materials guide parents to make up sentences with their child using the words on the list; sentences need to relate to a musical event. The child then draws a picture of it. To support the comprehension strategies of main idea and key details, parents encourage their child to read each paragraph and then ask them to identify the main idea and key details. After, the child chooses the picture that illustrates the main idea and draws a line under the picture that shows a key detail. Resources provide tips for parents to practice new literacy skills at home in an explicit, systematic, and multisensory manner. In Unit 4, Week 4, the newsletter suggests a variety of activities to support spelling, phonics, and comprehension. For example, the newsletter in Unit 4, Week 4, suggests word work activities to support vocabulary development, spelling, and spiral review. Materials prompt parents: “Ask child to use the words on the list to answer the questions.” Children choose one of the vocabulary words and make up a question, and then use that same word in response and write a sentence. There are no materials, ideas, or resources that offer meaningful activities for teachers and schools to use when planning a “Parent Night.” Materials also do not cover planning effective parent conferences to report student progress.
Materials in Units 5 and 6 provide support to develop and foster strong relationships between teachers and families and include recommendations of activities to support foundational literacy skills for parents to connect to the classroom. The School to Home Family newsletter, available in Spanish, includes a list of learning goals and is sent home every week with information about what the students will be learning. For example, the newsletter in Unit 5 informs parents of the genre study and focus of the week: Students study the genre of biography for two weeks and focus on the topic of what heroes do. This newsletter also includes suggestions for parents to help their child with vocabulary. For instance, materials prompt parents to ask their children “to choose someone who they admire” and together “use the words from the list to describe this person.” In Unit 6, the newsletter informs parents that their child will study the genre of drama/myth for two weeks and will focus on myths and facts about plants. This letter also has suggestions for the parents on how to help their child spiral and review. Instructions prompt parents to encourage their children to make up a story about a place to live on a new planet where people and plants can survive. Parents guide their children to use all of the words from the list and illustrate to complete the story.
The materials include appropriate use of white space and design that supports and does not distract from student learning. Pictures and graphics are also supportive of student learning and engagement without being visually distracting.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Units 1 and 2 include materials that are well organized, accessible, and easy to navigate when locating important information for lesson planning. The “Teacher’s Guide” is color-coded and tabbed; it is easy to identify content such as “Reading and Language Arts.” In Unit 1, the first 86 pages are an overview of the resource; teachers can find important information for lesson planning and implementation. In Unit 2, the first 30 pages contain the overview; lesson explanations follow. Both units offer weekly resources, students’ outcomes, and the content of each day, including a list of quality questions for lessons. At the beginning of each week, the “Concepto semanal” and “Pregunta esencial” appear in the same place and are consistent throughout the materials, including in the “Student Edition.” In Unit 1, Week 1, the “Weekly Concept” is “Ficción realista,” and the “Essential Question” is “¿En qué se parecen y en qué se diferencian las familias en todo el mundo?” In Unit 2, Week 1, the Weekly Concept is “Texto expositivo” and the Essential Question is “¿Cómo se parecen las crías a sus padres?” “Recursos de la lección” contain tables, charts, and visuals that are clear, concise, and not distracting; they are available in electronic versions. The units include a balance of text resources for read-alouds and shared readings. Unit 1, Week 1 contains the anchor texts Un desfile tradicional and “La otra orilla.” Unit 2, Week 1 has the anchor text “Osos bebes” and the shared reading “Águilas y aguiluchos.” Tools that support easy navigation of resources, such as color-coded pages and tabs, allow teachers to easily identify content on a page. In Unit 2, materials for small group instruction use different colors to identify the students’ levels. Orange represents “Approaching Level”; blue represents “On Level”; green represents “Beyond Level.” Student materials are also appropriately designed and state the intent clearly. Materials like the “‘Carteles de enseñanza” provide quality lesson support through resources like “Picture” and “Vocabulary” cards. For example, the “Tarjetas de foto” include visually clear pictures that match up to plainly marked letter connections on a white background. Vocabulary cards are presented in two formats in grade 2. The first one has one word per card (“Vocabulary”); the other has two words (“Vocabulary Cards”). The first option also appears in the Student Edition, while the second option contains activities that students complete together and in pairs with teacher guidance.
Materials in Unit 3 are well organized, easy to navigate, and contain engaging resources that support the topic of each week, the text set, whole groups, mini lessons, and small groups. Each week, materials provide students’ outcomes, resources, and skills to teach during word work, reading, writing, and workstations. Materials provide suggestions for lesson plans and offer specific guidance and implementation for daily use. The online version of the Teacher’s Guide offers guidance for whole group and small group lessons as well as skills to cover. All resources are available electronically and include tables, charts, and visuals that are clear, concise, and not distracting. Pictures and graphics are supportive of student learning and engagement without being visually distracting. Materials offer tips and suggestions in separate boxes using different color fonts. The Teacher’s Guide includes the day, skill, and objectives to cover; suggested time; and clear directions for implementation. In Unit 3, Week 1, in whole group, the teacher introduces the concept of narrative fiction and the Essential Question “How can people help out their community?” The student materials show a photograph of an adult with three children working in the garden. The teacher points to the photograph and asks students to tell what they think is happening. Student materials are appropriately designed to clearly state the intent. The materials are well organized, follow the same structure, and provide easy navigation of resources. The materials contain engaging pictures that are not too distracting. The online student materials are very engaging and include pictures and graphics that are supportive of student learning and engagement without being visually distracting. Picture cards for phonics include the letter in uppercase and lowercase, the syllables with that letter, and a picture with a label that represents that sound. The materials also provide “Word-Building Cards” and “Sound-Spelling Cards.” The teacher shows the Sound-Spelling Cards for the vowels a, e, i, o, and u and reviews their pronunciations in order to introduce the different types of diphthongs. This unit also offers text resources like leveled and decodable readers for small groups and picture books like Iluminando vidas. “Big Books” are also evident and include texts like Biblioburro: Una historia real de Colombia and Caer bien parado in the “Literature Anthology.”
Unit 5 and 6 include well-organized materials that are accessible and easy to navigate when locating important information for lesson planning and implementation. The Teacher’s Guide makes it easy for the teacher to find questions to engage students in partner conversations and collaborations or general questions to ask during whole group reading. The “Collaborative Conversations” section is color-coded in green to purposely match the green box that indicates partner and conversation activities. Listening comprehension questions or strategies are subtitled and in blue lettering. Anchor charts use orange font, making them easy for the teacher to see. Digital resources are also easy to locate: They appear in a box in the middle of the material with the title “Digital Resources.” Materials include authentic pictures in color for Visual Vocabulary Cards, Sound-Spelling Cards, and Photo Cards. Each unit contains a set of Visual Vocabulary Cards to support and increase students’ oral vocabulary; their pictures are clear and authentic. Sound-Spelling Cards show letters and syllables for the week, contain one picture that corresponds to the letter, and are easily identifiable by students. For example, in Unit 5, to review letters N, L, M, and S, students use Sound-Spelling Cards for the letter N. The card shows a big letter on the top, a picture of a single nest, the syllables na, ne, ni, no, and nu, and the word nido. In Unit 6, teachers use “Sound-Letter Cards” to review letters and sounds with the students. For example, to review the letter Q the teacher shows the card with the uppercase and lowercase letter, a picture of a queso, the syllables que and qui, and the word queso. The card is easy for the students to read and free from any distractions. Unit 5 offers texts like “Me llamo Celia Cruz,” which includes authentic, clear, colorful, and vibrant pictures that portray the life of Celia Cruz. Pictures are big and use fonts appropriate for students to be able to read. Pictures and graphics in the “Reading/Writing Companion” are also clear; simple question design allows plenty of space for student answers. Graphic organizers offer ample white space for the students’ work. For instance, in one graphic organizer, students write “goods” under one column and “services” under the other column. There is also a green box with a picture of two children, which indicates to students that they will be discussing a topic with a partner (e.g., “How does the author help you think about the life of a dollar bill?”)
This item is not scored.
The materials include guidance and recommendations on how they could be applied within a particular bilingual program model. Also, materials cite some current, relevant research on Spanish literacy development and second language development and acquisition.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
The materials include guidance and recommendations on how they could be applied within a particular bilingual program model. There is an introduction with an overview and recommendations for implementation within a DLI bilingual program model. For example, the overview of Unit 1 states: “Can be used successfully for dual language or two-way immersion instruction, particularly in programs where all students (native Spanish speakers, as well as native English speakers) are instructed to learn to read in Spanish.” The overview indicates that this program fosters cross-cultural appreciation and emphasizes similarities between English and Spanish. There is support for dual language, two-way immersion, and late exit programs.
The material provides relevant research on English Learners’ (ELs) literacy development. Under “Teacher Resources,” the article “Improving Literacy for English Learners: What Teachers Need to Know” indicates the importance of reinforcing objectives with ELs to set clear boundaries. The article indicates which program model is set to help students learn and make connections with previously learned material. For example: “Effective teachers model new skills and procedures as part of the learning process. Once students see how to accomplish a task and practice doing it, they move more quickly to working independently and completing the task.”
The “Supporting Research” section includes research delineating the misconceptions, similarities, and differences between code-switching and translanguaging and how each applies to the bilingual classroom. For example, the “Language Transfers Handbook” explains why ELs may have difficulty with certain English sounds and grammar. It also provides cognates and lists “Grammar and Phonics Transfers” in six languages.
This item is not scored.
The materials highlight opportunities for students to make cross-linguistic connections. They allow for equitable instruction in both languages, in terms of quality and quantity of materials. Materials support teacher and student understanding and application of the connection between the languages.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Units 1 and 2 provide materials that allow for equitable instruction in terms of quantity in a variety of ways. For instance, both units offer three stories as part of the weekly Tier I instruction in the students’ “Reading/Writing Companion.” Examples of stories include Un desfile tradicional, Cuentos de antología, “La otra orilla,” and “De aquí y de allá,” as well as the “Interactive Read-Aloud Cards” “Cena en casa de Alejandro.” Materials also offer enrichment opportunities. For instance, there are three leveled short story expository texts: “Approaching Level,” “La banda de música”; “On Level,” “Año nuevo en Septiembre”; and “Beyond Level” “Mat el cocinero.” The “Guia de transferencias linguisticas” provides guidance to identify the transferable elements between Spanish and English. In Unit 1, Week 1, this guide provides indications for small groups and mentions activities to use to encourage opportunities for translanguaging. In Week 2, the guide references “Apoyo aprendices de Español,” which recommends to “point out potential pronunciation challenges in each section of a text.”
The materials are relevant to children’s linguistic and cultural backgrounds, include authentically rich plot lines with diverse characters, and offer information about cultures. For example, Unit 1, Week 1 has “Escuelas del mundo” and Un desfile tradicional; Week 2 includes the texts “De aquí y de allá” and “Piñatas de cumpleaños,” which showcase traditions; in Week 4, children with special needs are represented in the poem “El gato soñador.” Materials provide Spanish Leveled Readers in “Guia vistazo a los libros por nivel,” which is an extensive list of books organized by level for second grade. In Unit 2, Weeks 1–3 include folktales known in various cultures. The readers include “La cenicienta y sus amigos” and “La cigarra y las hormigas.” Scaffolds facilitate the participation and understanding of students across all levels of language proficiency. In Unit 1, Week 1, before reading Un desfile tradicional, the teacher previews cognates that will appear in the story for students with low English proficiency, while students with medium proficiency search for cognates. Students search for cognates in authentic texts and investigate whether the meaning of a word in the first language makes sense in the second language. Students with high English proficiency create sentences with the cognates that they find.
In Unit 3, materials allow for equitable instruction in both languages, in terms of quality and quantity of materials. Maravillas provides quality materials only in Spanish and offers guidance to teach the lesson only in the native language, while Wonders materials are only in English. The “Dual Language Planner” provides a side-by-side lesson plan for Wonders and Maravillas and highlights the “Non-Transferable Lessons” that are taught in Spanish and English. In the last week of each unit, the “Bridge to English” offers lessons to support vocabulary, spelling, phonics, reading, and writing. In Week 5, materials provide guidance for key vocabulary words: “Display the words in Spanish and in English...and read the words and their definitions aloud.” The teacher then points out the cognates and says the words in English again; students repeat them. The teacher uses gestures, shows pictures, and points to objects to support children’s understanding. After, the teacher writes the true/false statements on the board (e.g., “You cheer if you don’t like something”) reads them aloud, and asks children if the statement is true or false. The materials support teacher and student understanding and application of the connection between the languages; they include verbatim instructions for the teacher to explain the benefit of utilizing students’ full linguistic repertoire to understand new information. The “Language Transfers Handbook” provides teachers with an explanation of why English Learners may have difficulty with certain English sounds and grammar. The Handbook includes cognates and lists “Grammar and Phonics Transfers” in six languages. Various scaffolds facilitate the participation and understanding of students across all levels of language proficiency. For example, during a whole group shared reading lesson in Week 3, instructions guide the teacher to read aloud “Viaje estelar” and use scaffolds for guided practice. The teacher helps “Beginning/Intermediate” students complete the sentence frames “‘¿Viaje estelar’ está narrado en tercera persona? ¿Cómo lo saben?” Students work in partners and circle the pronouns, then review which noun each pronoun refers to. To support “Advanced/Advanced High” students, the teacher guides partners to identify the pronouns and their referents. Then, students discuss the following: “Veo la palabra mi en el último párrafo… Si el autor utiliza la palabra mi, ¿por qué la historia está en tercera persona?” English “Wonders” materials provide “Support for English Language Learners” and the “English Language Learners Scaffold.”
In Units 5 and 6, the Language Transfers Handbook guides the teacher on how to teach cognates. The Handbook provides examples of “cognates strategy instruction.” It tells teachers: “Explain that sometimes words look and/or sound alike but are not cognates.” Both units also offer multiple texts, print resources, and Leveled Readers in Spanish that contain authentically rich plot lines with diverse characters students can relate to. Resources are also relevant to children’s linguistic and cultural backgrounds and represent various Hispanic cultures. For example, in Unit 5, Weeks 1 and 2 include the biography of Celia Cruz, “Me llamo Celia.” This text allows students to learn about a famous female singer who promised to continue school and continue singing. In Unit 6, Weeks 1 and 2 include two different texts, “La vida de un billete de un dólar” and “Locura por el dinero,” which teach how money is made and used. Both texts allow for equitable instruction in both languages, as the English materials also provide the same texts. At the end of Unit 5, the Bridge to English instructs the teacher to teach cognates such as heroe/hero and barrera/barrier and also guides the teacher on “language transfer.” The teacher explains that both English and Spanish “use adjectives to describe nouns,” but that “English adjectives come before the noun or follow the verb ‘be,’ unlike in Spanish (a “non-transferable skill”). The resource also guides the teacher to explain how Spanish vowels have the same pronunciation, but in English “syllables are often pronounced with the schwa sound (ə), as in the last syllable of people, medal, terrible.”
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The materials represent the cultural and linguistic diversity of the Spanish language and Hispanic culture and support the development of socio-cultural competence. Both teacher and student materials are presented in authentic and academic Spanish, are quality transadaptations or translations, and are appropriate for the purpose and context of the activity.
Evidence includes but is not limited to:
Materials provide Spanish resources, translations, and transadaptations that are age-appropriate for students’ learning, integrate content, and maintain age-appropriate vocabulary. Units 1 and 2 offer English-to-Spanish transadaptations that do not deviate from the story’s meaning. In Unit 1, Week 1, there is the Spanish transadaptation Un desfile tradicional. During the shared read, the teacher follows a script that uses authentic Spanish for student questioning. The teacher asks, “¿Por qué cree ella que es injusto ir a la práctica?” In Week 5, the text “Trabajo de familia” is a transadaptation of “Families Work.” Unit 2 also includes the transadaptation “La cenicienta y sus amigos” in Week 4.
Teacher guidance emphasizes linguistic diversity by focusing on words that have different meanings in various Spanish dialects. For example, in Unit 1, Week 1, the story “La otra orilla” incorporates the word pañolón, which is chal in Nicaragua and Colombia, rebozo in México, pareo, manton, mantilla in España, and chalina in Ecuador. The resource “El ancho mundo del espanol” explains words that have different names or meanings in different Spanish-speaking countries. For example, the word plátano is known in other countries as banano, banana, cambur, and guineo; basurero is known as caneca, tacho, bote de basura, and zafacón.
The materials include a wide variety of authentic Spanish texts written by Hispanic authors. In Unit 1, students read the text “La otra orilla” by Chilean author Marta Carrasco and La vaca estudiosa by Venezuelan author Maria Elena Walsh. The texts integrate cultural objectives to embrace heritage and family traditions. For instance, in Week 1, the story “De aquí y de allá” provides opportunities for students to discuss their bicultural reflections. During the shared reading lesson, the teacher encourages students to think about “¿en qué se parecen y en qué se diferencian las familias en todo el mundo?”
Unit 3 provides translations and transadaptions that are age-appropriate for students’ learning and include interaction with content. Both teacher and student materials are presented in authentic and academic Spanish and are quality transadaptations or translations. For example, in Week 2, the text Biblioburro: una historia real de Colombia is a transadaptation that does not deviate from the story’s meaning and maintains age-appropriate vocabulary. During the whole group read-aloud of this text, the teacher script uses authentic Spanish for student questioning. For example, to help students access complex text, guidance instructs: “Luis names his burros Alfa and Beto on page 214… Explain that alfabeto means abecedario.” The teacher then asks the children why Luis names his burros Alfa and Beto. The teacher points out the word biblioburro and explains its meaning, guiding children to see why Luis chose the word. In addition, materials support the development of socio-cultural competence and include cultural objectives that align to unit goals, bridge cultural values, and foster a bicultural identity. Unit 3 provides different texts that promote biculturalism, such as “Iluminando vidas” and “Colorea tu comunidad.” The materials represent the cultural and linguistic diversity of the Spanish language and Hispanic culture and include stories that specify their country of origin. The text “La bibliotecaria de Basora” tells a story from Iraq; “¡Ya llegan los Reyes magos!” tells about the customs and traditions of holidays in Puerto Rico; De la A a la Z Cuba teaches about the island of Cuba; “Antonio en el país del silencio” is a story about a boy from Spain who moves to Germany; and De la A a la Z Perú teaches about Peru.
Materials in Units 5 and 6 include high-quality, age-appropriate, authentic texts. In Unit 5, Weeks 1 and 2, students read about the life of Celia Cruz through the biography “Me llamo Celia.” This text is about a girl, her Cuban upbringing, and her big dreams. The text shows Cuban culture and incorporates pictures with bright colors to illustrate Celia’s music and life. In Weeks 3 and 4, the text Acuarelas tells the story of Wadi, who has a Senegalese dad and a Mexican mom; Wadi speaks two languages. In Unit 6, Weeks 1 and 2, materials include a transadaptation titled “La vida de un billete de un dolar.” Though originally written in English, the Spanish text conveys the message of the journey of a dollar bill. In Weeks 3 and 4, the “Reader’s Theater” “El origen de la quinua” includes idioms and various Spanish words. Though the text does not specify the origin, it does integrate words like quinua and sinuosos, which are not typical Spanish words.
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